The Rev. President Cossitt, a Clergyman belonging to this body of Christians and Principal of the Literary institution at Princeton, Ky. says the Columbian Register of Washington City, left this city on Wednesday last, on his return to the West, having visited other places, north of the Metropolis, to forward the interests of the institution over which he presides, soliciting donations of books, money, &c. This institution numbers at the present time about ninety young men, although it has been in operation only about four years. Manual labour as a source of health both to mind and body, forms a part of its system. The influences of the blessed Spirit have been enjoyed, and revivals of religion have taken place in the college. We have always understood that the Cumberland Presbyterians were a warm-hearted and devoted people, and hence the preaching of their ministers, though received with more excitement and accompanied with rather more shouting than Presbyterians in this part of the country would approve, has been signally blessed of God as the instrument of saving souls. Thousands, if not thoroughly instructed in the truth, have been hopefully and joyfully converted through the truth. It is moreover pleasant to learn that so far from denouncing, as many pretenders have done, the acqusition [sic]of knowledge and the pursuits of literature, the preachers of this denomination, sensible of the value of a learned ministry, are eager in the pursuit of knowledge. There is an increasing desire felt among the people for knowledge. No better evidence of this need be asked than the existence of so flourishing an institution as the Cumberland College.
The last sermon of the Rev.
Mr. Cossitt, who has preached many times in the District,
was delivered in the Ninth-street Church, in this city, on Sabbath
night to a crowded audience. It was an impressive and powerful
discourse, and will doubtless be long remembered by those who
heard it, especially the youth to whom it was particularly addressed.
[Source: The Philadelphian. Vol. V. No. 45, November 6, 1829, page 1]
[page 129] [The following elaborate sketch by the Rev. Richard Beard, D.D., Professor of Theology in Cumberland University, has been prepared in compliance with earnest personal and written requests from the editor of the present series of articles upon Cumberland Presbyterian history. Dr. Beard is the only man living who could prepare such a sketch. As one of the pioneer institutions of learning in the Great Valley, the narrative of the origin, success, difficulties, and failure of Cumberland College, will always be read with deep interest and instruction by the student of American educational history. As the historical parent of Cumberland University, and indeed, of all our denominational colleges, its history has peculiar claims upon the careful study of all intelligent members of our communion.
The professors and alumni of old Cumberland College may well be congratulated upon having found so faithful a record drawn up by a hand so impartial and so loving. Very few wealthy and living colleges have presented to the public so minute and graphic a memorial as that which is here furnished by the venerated ex-President of a poor and extinct institution.
Be in noted, however, that Tennessee, which was specially the field cultivated by the agents of Cumberland College, has [page 130] now become the seat of great Church institutions of learning in a pre-eminent degree.
Be it also noted, that the graduates and pupils of Cumberland College have become leaders in pushing forward to a successful issue the other educational work of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Perhaps it is not out of the range of strict history to say, respecting this seat of learning so long and pertinaciously maintained at Princeton, Kentucky: "Si monumentum quaeris, circumspice!"
From Pennsylvania to and through Texas, Cumberland Presbyterians have done a great pioneer work as educators. I hope, through such collaborators as Doctors Beard, Miller, Mitchell, and others, to preserve worthy memorials of that work. J. B. L.]
In the course of the sessions of the old Cumberland Synod, held at Princeton, Kentucky, in October of 1825, the subject of the establishment of a literary institution, to be under the control and patronage of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, was first brought before that body. The Church was then fifteen and a half years old. Four years before this time, Mr. Franceway R. Cossitt, a young minister of the Episcopal Church, who had emigrated from New England, and established himself as a teacher a few miles from Clarksville, in Middle Tennessee, had been introduced to Rev. Thomas Calhoon, and Messrs. Robert Baker, Robert S. Donnell, and the writer, at a Camp-meeting on Wells' Creek, about twenty miles from Clarksville. Mr. Cossitt, after a further acquaintance, determined to identify himself with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He was accordingly received, and in a short time set apart to the whole work of the ministry in this Church. He continued, however, the avocation of teaching, and by correspondence with some of the leading ministers previous to the meeting of the Synod in 1825, had prepared their minds for action upon the measure which was proposed, as it has been said, in the course of its sessions. The subject had also been brought before the [page 131] minds of some gentlemen of influence, who were not members of the Church, but who were its friends, and who were deeply interested in the cause of education in the country. Several of these men attended the meeting of the Synod, and united, by invitation, with the members in the discussion of the question of establishing a Cumberland Presbyterian high school or college. Two of the most prominent of these, were Messrs. John Gray, and Ephraim M. Ewing, both prominent lawyers, the former from Elkton, and the latter from Russellville, Kentucky.
The leading members of the Synod who participated in the discussion, were Finis Ewing, Samuel King, Robert Donnell, F. R. Cossitt, David Lowry, and John and William Barnett. These were the most prominent men in the Synod, and at that time, in the Church.
It was finally determined to establish a manual labor school, to be called the Cumberland Presbyterian College, at some point conveniently central to the denomination. Four leading considerations were urged by those who were prominent in the measure: a system of education adapted to the sons of the yeomanry of the country, to young men who were not too fastidious, and who had energy enough to unite labor with study; cheapness; the securing of health in the midst of intellectual pursuits, and the education of young men for the ministry in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.
The writer recollects very distinctly that the argument for health in connection with education, was particularly urged by Mr. Cossitt, and Mr. Ephraim M. Ewing. They were both frail men, and appealed to their own loss of health in scholastic pursuits, in confirmation of their arguments. All who participated in the discussion, urged the argument for the education of the young ministry. It will thus be perceived that this argument, which has been so often repeated, and urged among us recently, is not new. It is fifty years old. We are thankful for what it has effected, but it ought to have accomplished a great deal more. This is, however, by the way.
It was understood that Southwestern Kentucky was a central region to the Church, and that the contemplated college [page 132] was to be located somewhere in that section of country. Consequently a commission was appointed from that portion of the Church, as agents of the Synod, to select a suitable site for the institution, and to take such steps as would be necessary to its organization, and to its being put into operation as early as possible. This commission held its first meeting, it is supposed, from its date, previous to the adjournment of the Synod. The following is the record of this first meeting:
"The Synod of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, at its last meeting, held at Princeton, Kentucky, on the 21st day of October, 1825, having entered into a resolution, and adopted a constitution for the establishment of a college in some situation within its bounds, and having proceeded to appoint Rev. John Barnett, Rev. F. R. Cossitt, E. M. Ewing, Esq., J. D. Hamilton, Esq., and Joseph M. Street, commissioners, to determine upon the proper location of said college, and for other purposes, and the said commissioners having met on the 24th day of October, 1825, appointed to meet again at Princeton, Kentucky, on the first Monday in January, 1826, to proceed to the performance of the duties assigned to them by the Synod, and adjourned."
Again: "In compliance with the order of Synod, and their own agreement, Rev. John Barnett, Rev. F. R. Cossitt, E. M. Ewing, Esq., Joseph D. Hamilton, Esq., and Joseph M. Street, met at the house of Mt. Mitchusan, in the town of Princeton, Kentucky, on the first Monday in January, 1826, it being the second day of the month, when Rev. John Barnett was called to the chair, and Joseph M. Street was appointed Secretary."
A resolution was adopted, and is referred to, but seems to have been mislaid. It is not found in the record. The commission adjourned to the next day. The next day, January 3rd, they met and spent some time in examining the surroundings of Princeton. This was one of the points in the minds of the Synod for a location of the new institution. From Princeton they adjourned to Hopkinsville; and then to Elkton; and finally to Russellville, examining the neighborhood of each place for a suitable site; and also endeavoring to ascertain the amounts which might be expected in the way of [page 133] subscriptions or donations, from each town and vicinity, in the event of the location of the college in their midst.
Finally, on the 13th of January, 1826, after examining all the ground which seems to have been before them, together with the prospects of assistance from the several points, the commission determined in favor of Princeton, and for the immediate location, the farm of Mr. Mercer Wadlington, situated about a mile from the town. It was a valuable farm, containing between four and five hundred acres, with good improvements, and an unfailing spring of good water. They agreed to pay six thousand dollars for the property, and were to have possession the first day of March following.
It was further ordered by the commission, that the trustees to be appointed afterwards, should have power to purchase seventy-three acres of land additional, which was situated in suitable relations to the farm already purchased, the whole constituting one of the best farms in the county. At the same meeting it was "further ordered that the Rev. F. R. Cossitt be, and is hereby, chosen teacher of said institution, and that he be allowed at the rate of one thousand dollars in commonwealth paper per annum for his services, to be paid semi-annually, in advance, from the time of his entering into the institution. That the Rev. John Barnett be appointed manager of the farm and boarding establishment. That the Rev. John Barnett, Rev. David Lowry, John H. Phelps, Asbury Harpending, and John Mercer, Esq., be, and they are hereby, appointed a committee to act as a Board of Trustees, and that all the aforesaid appointment continue until the next meeting of the Synod; and, furthermore, that the said trustees take into their possession the subscriptions and donations, receive titles for the lands donated in the name of the trustees for the use of said college; collect the funds as they may become due, and do all acts and things that they may deem necessary to bring the said institution into full and complete operation." Signed by "John Barnett, Franceway R Cossitt, Joseph M. Street, E. M. Ewing, Joseph D. Hamilton."
The commission had thus completed its work, and surrendered its authority to its successors under another name. Of [page 134] the first meeting of the new Board of Trustees, the following is the record:
"At a meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Cumberland Presbyterian College, at the farm of Mercer Wadlington, near Princeton, January 20th, 1826, present, Rev. John Barnett, Rev. David Lowry, Asbury Harpending, John Mercer, and John H. Phelps. Rev. John Barnett was chosen Chairman, and John H. Phelps, Clerk."
At this meeting the purchase of Mr. Wadlington's farm was effected, for the sum of six thousand dollars in specie. Fifteen hundred dollars were to be paid in advance, and the balance in equal portions, at the expiration of one and two years. In this transaction we see the beginning of the pecuniary troubles from which Cumberland College was never wholly free up to the time of its final abandonment by the General Assembly, in 1844. We shall reach this dark chapter in its history in due time. The trustees bought a large farm at a high price, and were under the necessity of borrowing money for the first payment. Yet the purchase seemed to be necessary. It was to be a manual labor school, and the labor of the young men was expected to contribute largely towards their boarding, and in order to their laboring productively, it was necessary to have something to work upon, and something to work with. Not only a farm was needed, but suitable utensils and stock for carrying forward its operations.
Another fact is to be brought out in this connection, which is very material to the history. Money and property were subscribed in Princeton and the neighborhood, as a condition of the location of the college near the town. When the writer first became acquainted with these matters, it was accustomed to be said that about fifteen thousand dollars had thus been subscribed or pledged in that way. Some of the subscriptions and pledges were in property, but the value of the whole was estimated at about the sum mentioned. Of course the trustees expected a reasonable portion of this sum to be realized. It turned out, however, that very little was ever realized, and when the time came for the second pay- [page 135] ment upon their obligation to Mr. Wadlington, they were under the necessity of borrowing the money as before. When the final payment became due, they had still to borrow.
Of course no reflections are intended here upon the memory of those whose delinquency in paying their subscriptions and making their promised donations, originated the necessity of these heavy debts on the part of the trustees. The writer does not know, and never knew, who those persons were, but states what were admitted facts, and facts spoken of freely forty-five years ago. It is perhaps out of place, but the temptation can hardly be resisted, to mention that our continued experience in the management of our public enterprises, has been very much of the same kind up to the present day. We become aroused and plan great things; we promise liberally; but when the hour of trial comes, a few bear the burden, whilst others stand off and do nothing, or rather often become faultfinders, and hindrances, to those who are trying to fulfill their high obligations. There are men among us who expect to carry the smart of such financial folly and wickedness to their graves.
It has been stated that Mr. Cossitt had been appointed "Teacher" of the institution, and there is no record of the fact, but there is a tradition, that he commenced his labors on the first day of March, 1826. The order was that all the students should board at a common boarding-house, occupying rooms at a convenient distance from both the college building and the refectory. Six neat brick rooms were erected for the accommodation of students, each large enough for four young men. The rest of the rooms were of similar dimensions, but cabins with puncheon floors, clapboard roofs, and chimneys constructed of wood and mortar, the fire-places having backs of stone. A large building of hewed logs, two stories high, with stone chimneys, and wide, country-like fire-places, was erected for college purposes. It was literally a log college, and perhaps the second in America which could be so denominated, Mr. William Tennent's, of New Jersey, being the first. What had been the family residence of Mr. Wadlington, with some additions, served as a board- [page 136] ing-house. The rate of board and tuition was fixed at sixty dollars per year, of ten months and a half. Each student was required to labor two hours per day, at whatever kind of labor the manager of the farm might prescribe. The labor was expected, however, to be mostly confined to the farm. It has been stated that Rev. John Barnett was to superintend the farm and boarding-house. He was permitted to bring to the institution such parts of his own property as would be useful to the farm and boarding-house, and for the use of such property, and for his personal services, he was to have "a reasonable compensation."
At the meeting of the Trustees of the College on the 27th of March, 1826, the following order was passed:
"That the faculty direct what kind of diet is thought to be wholesome and frugal, according to the custom of other colleges, and that they shall give any other directions which they may think proper in relation to the boarding, lodging, and cooking establishments."
At a meeting of the trustees on the 24th of April, 1826, two matters of graver interest occurred. Mr. Asbury Harpending, who had been previously appointed Treasurer of the Board, resigned, but being re-nominated, and unanimously elected again, he resumed the duties of the office; the condition, however, being that he was to give "bond, with good security, to be approved by the trustees, in the penalty of twenty thousand dollars, for the faithful discharge of his duties, and made payable to the trustees."
It appears that he fulfilled the condition. The other matter was graver still. It is thus recorded:
"Resolved, Unanimously, by this Board, that they will encumber by mortgage, the lands conveyed to the trustees of the Cumberland Presbyterian College by Mercer Wadlington and his wife, to the securities in the bonds given by the trustees of said institution to said Wadlington, for the purchase money of said lands."
This is a very distinct intimation of distress already felt by the authorities of the college, on score of debt, and yet this is but the second month of the existence of the institution.
[page 137] The following is a good resolution adopted at a meeting of the Board, June 28, 1826:
"Resolved, That in employing a teacher, or assistant teacher, in the said college, due regard shall always be paid to qualification, and unless candidates for office produce a diploma, they must undergo an examination on the branches they profess to teach, by the faculty of the college, in the presence of the trustees."
At a meeting of the Board of Trustees, September 18, 1826, Mr. Daniel L. Morrison, was employed as an assistant teacher in the college "at the sum of five hundred and fifty dollars per annum, payable in commonwealth's paper, semi-annually, in advance, he having been examined agreeably to the order of the trustees."
In the midst of their other labors the Board of Trustees were making efforts to collect what was due to them, and under date of January 2, 1827, the following resolution was passed:
"Resolved, That Rev. David Lowry be requested to address each individual that stands in arrears to the institution, either verbally or by letter, as may best suit his convenience, requesting them each one to make payment of what they owe the institution, but in a mild and persuasive manner."
This resolution is supposed to relate chiefly to subscriptions which had been made, and the donations promised as an inducement to the location of the college. If so, it soon became certain, that, notwithstanding the suaviter in modo enjoined upon their agent, they would not realize much. Unfortunately men are frequently careless of such debts, and persuasions do not effect much.
It will have been observed, that the college up to this point in our narrative, has been denominated the Cumberland Presbyterian College. This was the name designated by the Synod in the resolution, in conformity with which the institution was established. It was the name preferred by the leading members of the Church, and a committee was appointed, of which Rev. Henry F. Delany was a leading member, to visit Frankfort at some time while the approaching Legislature was in session, and superintend the procuring of a charter. Mr. Delany attended the meeting of the Legisla [page 138] ture, and conferred with prominent members, who advised him to drop the Presbyterian from the style of the college, and ask for a charter of Cumberland College. The apprehension was, that if the term Presbyterian was retained, it would stir up sectarian jealously, and perhaps defeat the object altogether. He yielded to these counsels, and the bill was accordingly presented and passed, for a charter of Cumberland College. These statements are made, not from the record, but from memory. They are, however, unquestionably in conformity with the facts. Consequently our narrative henceforth will be a narrative of facts connected with the operations of "Cumberland College." The last record of a meeting of the trustees of the Cumberland Presbyterian College, is dated January 2, 1827. The first meeting of the trustees of Cumberland College was held May 28, 1827. The members present were David Lowry, Henry F. Delany, A. Harpending, John H. Phelps, and Will Lander. David Lowry was elected President of the Board, Will Lander, Secretary, and A. Harpending, Treasurer.
This change in the name of the college created some dissatisfaction. Kentucky politics were a good deal unsettled at that time, and a few strenuous members of the Church outside of the State, thought that the surrender in this case was but a beginning of what would be likely to follow in the way of rendering the operations of the college unstable. Still it is believed that the State never refused any subsequent change in the charter, that was thought necessary to the prosperity of the institution by its friends.
At a meeting of the trustees, May 30, 1829, it was
"Resolved, That the Faculty be instructed to make known, that a teacher of French would be employed, to give instruction from the commencement of the next session of Cumberland College."
We shall see that in the course of a few months such an appointment was made. In the meantime another movement was made towards collecting the old subscriptions, which have been already mentioned. At a meeting of the Board of Trustees, on the 29th of December, 1829, it was
"Resolved, That Will Lander be, and he is hereby, appointed [page 139] a commissioner to collect the subscriptions to the Cumberland College, within Caldwell and the adjacent counties; that the said commissioner be, and he is hereby, authorized to close the same by note, or notes with a credit of six or twelve months, and upon the failure or refusal of the subscribers to adjust their subscriptions within a reasonable time, according to the terms of the subscription, that then, and in that event, the said commissioner be required to collect the same by due course of law."
The trustees were evidently in earnest in the passage of this resolution, but it was understood about the time that it was unavailing. There is no account in the record of any assistance from the old subscriptions.
At the same meeting of the Board, two other resolutions were passed, which deserve attention. The one related to the conduct of the students:
"Resolved, That no student shall in future be permitted to purchase any article from any slave, or free negro, without the consent of some member of the faculty; and, resolved, that if any student shall violate this resolution, he, or they, so offending, shall be subject to such correction as the faculty shall deem expedient; and that a copy of this resolution be placed in the dining-room of the refectory, and also in one of the rooms of the college."
The other resolution relates to the appointment of an instructor in French, according to a previous announcement. Mr. Bertrand Guerin was appointed, after examination, to teach French, Latin, English Grammar, and Geography, at a salary of four hundred dollars per annum, and his board in the refectory. Mr. Guerin was a foreigner, and soon proved to be a literary vagabond. His conduct became so objectionable, that he was called before a committee of the General Assembly in May following. The committee were very severe upon him, and the result was, that he was made to understand that his resignation would be very agreeable to all concerned. Of course he soon left the institution.
At the same meeting, December 29, 1826, Mr. Cossitt was re-employed as teacher, or rather as President, of the college, for the following year, at a salary of eight hundred and [page 140] thirty-three dollars and thirty-three and a third cents. Mr. Morrison was also employed at a salary of six hundred dollars; "said Morrison was also to act as Corresponding Secretary and Clerk of the Faculty, without any additional compensation."
At a meeting of the Board, January 27, 1830, Rev. David Lowry was appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy in the college. The fixing of the salary was referred to the General Assembly. He was permitted to have a family residence and kitchen erected, near what was called the camp-ground spring, at a cost of not more than fifty dollars to the college; he was to have, in addition, the use of ten acres of land, and his firewood. Fifty dollars would of course build a small house and kitchen. Still it was a day of small things. The President of the College lived in a house that could hardly be considered better than a cabin. The little house at the back of the farm, near the camp-ground, was, for a few months in 1830, a pleasant home, as the writer very well recollects. It was unpretending as the residence of a Professor of Moral Philosophy, but no complaints were made. It was a feature in conformity with the general features of the college.
From the establishment of the college, it had been customary for the Board of Trustees, in conformity with the recommendation of the Synod, to appoint agents, or, as they are generally termed in the records, missionaries, to solicit donations for the benefit of the college. In the fall of 1826, Rev. Reuben Burrow, and Rev. A. G. Gibson, were appointed to that service. They traveled entirely through East Tennessee and North Carolina, but collected very little. Mr. Burrow says the sum was small. It seems to have fallen considerably short of paying their expenses.
In the fall of 1827, Rev. Laban Jones was appointed to a similar service, and at the expiration of twelve months, paid over to the Treasurer of the college, one hundred and forty-three dollars and twenty-five cents, as the result of a year's labor. It is significant, too, that his commission extended to the United States.
At a meeting of the Board, November 21, 1829, Revs. John [page 141] W. Ogden, and M. H. Bone, who had been engaged in a similar agency, reported after paying expenses and commission, seventh-eight dollars and forty-seven cents. Taking these as specimens, we would judge that but little was realized from agencies. Revs. Hiram McDaniel, John L. Dillard, and William Bigham, were subsequently appointed agents or missionaries, but the results of their labors are not recorded.
We have now reached the stage in our narrative at which the writer became connected with Cumberland College. His own personal recollections will assist him, whilst he will still be guided in the accounts of all important transactions by the records. Early in the month of May, 1830, he reached the institution, and united with it as a student. This step was taken after having been nine years and a half in the ministry, and four and a half of those years engaged in teaching. Of course nothing like a ripple was produced on the surface of the society of the college by that event, but it was an important one to him. Mr. Cossitt, Mr. Morrison--we called him Judge Morrison then--and Mr. Guerin, were the college teachers. Mr. F. C. Usher, and a young Mr. Dodds, from Indiana, were preparatory teachers. Mr. John McGrew managed the boarding-house, and Mr. Rainer Mercer, a licensed preacher, the farm. There were about one hundred and twenty-five students. The college seemed a good deal like a bee-hive. Each teacher was ringing the bell every hour for his class; and every two hours the horn was blowing for the laboring divisions. All seemed to be interest and animation. It must be confessed, however, that a portion of the animation, and a portion by no means inconsiderable, as time showed, was expended in mischief: but still there was life. In addition to all, the faculty, dressed in their long black gowns, presented rather an imposing appearance to a frontier circuit-rider and common school teacher. The black gowns, however, it is believed, did not outlive that collegiate year.
In a few days the general Assembly met at Princeton. The meeting was opened by a sermon from Rev. Finis Ewing. It was the last Assembly that he ever attended. The Assembly made two recommendations to the Board of Trustees, vitally affecting the interests of the college. One was, [page 142] that the rate of board and tuition should be raised from sixty to eighty dollars per annum; the other, that Mr. Lowry disconnecting himself from the college, should assume the entire control of the Religious and Literary Intelligencer, the publication of which had been commenced a few months before, and that Mr. Cossitt should direct his entire time and attention to the college. They had previously conducted the paper jointly, whilst both held important positions in the college. The first recommendation was adopted, and also the second, the parties concerned acquiescing.
In 1830 there were several young men in the college preparing for the ministry. Among them were Silas N. Davis, who was understood to be preparing for ordination, Cyrus Haynes, Elim McCord, John D. Perryman, and John S. Napier. The two last named turned their attention from the ministry; the others became prominent and useful in the work, but have all passed away. The graduating class of that year consisted of two members, Cornelius G. McPherson, and James P. Barnett. Mr. Barnett died early. Mr. McPherson has been chiefly engaged in the work of education, as a Professor in Cumberland College; then in Cumberland University; President of a college in Missouri, and President of a female college in Memphis. For a time, too, he was assistant editor of the old Cumberland Presbyterian, at Nashville. He still lives, and is now Rev. C. G. McPherson, of Louisville, Kentucky. At the close of our collegiate year, in September, Judge Morrison terminated his connection with the college. He was evidently a respectable scholar, and an estimable old gentleman. He taught, perhaps, to some extent after that, but lived chiefly in retirement.
At a meeting of the Board of Trustees, October 29, 1830, Mr. T. C. Anderson was appointed Tutor. The following is the record:
"On motion of R. A. Patterson, resolved, that Thos. C. Anderson, be, and he is hereby, appointed tutor in Cumberland College, for the term of one year, commencing on the first Monday in November next, and that he receive for his services the sum of five hundred dollars payable semi-annually, and that he also act as librarian for said college, and that he [page 143] be allowed to board and have his washing done at the refectory free of cost, he having been examined according to the by-laws."
It may be mentioned here that Mr. Anderson was reappointed at the commencement of the next year, and thus gave two years of service to the college. Owing perhaps to the change in the price of board and tuition, as recommended by the General Assembly, the number of students was not so large as it had been; and for a year and a half two teachers were considered sufficient. Dr. Anderson has been prominently connected with the operations of the Church for forty-five years, and needs no additional notice here.
In May, 1831, the General Assembly met again at Princeton. As it had been usual for some years, the condition of the college came in for a large share of its attention. The financial embarrassments of the institution had become so great, as to present a prospect almost hopeless. A single encouraging fact, however, is too far out of the ordinary line of events in those days to be left unnoticed here. Rev. John W. Ogden reported and paid over to the Treasurer seven hundred dollars collected by him as agent for the college. Similar reports from a sufficient number of agents would have afforded permanent relief. But this was a single case. A proposition had been made in the Board, upon a mortgage of the college property, to try to secure a loan of three thousand dollars to pay some of the debts of the institution. Again, at the same meeting of the Board, on the 2nd day of April, a proposition was made by Revs. Hiram McDaniel, John Barnett, and F. R. Cossitt, to "donate each of them one hundred dollars, provided forty-seven others would unite with them in like sums, in sufficient time to afford relief from the pressing exigencies of the institution. These three persons were at once appointed agents, to carry this proposition into effect if possible. In the midst of this condition of things, the time arrived for the meeting of the Assembly.
The proposition of Messrs. Cossitt, Barnett, and McDaniel, it will be remembered, was made on the 2nd day of April, and they had been appointed a committee to carry it into ef- [page 144] fect if possible. We hear nothing more of the proposition or the committee. On the 17th day of May the Assembly met. It is supposed that nothing had been done. In the progress of the sessions of the Assembly, a proposition was made, to recommend to the trustees of the college, the leasing of the college-farm and boarding-house, and all the property connected with the institution, to Rev. John Barnett, and Rev. Aaron Shelby, for a term of years, upon such conditions as could be agreed upon by those parties. It was thought that the financial affairs of the institution, in the hands of vigorous and practical men, personally interested in them, might be so managed as to yield an income sufficient, in a few years, to pay its debts, and give it a new impulse in its work. The proposition was favorably received by the Assembly, and they so recommended.
For the satisfaction of readers in relation to important events which occurred forty-five years ago in connection with the operations of the Church, the report of the Assembly's Committee, appointed to make arrangements for Cumberland College, is herein embodied. The Committee consisted of Revs. William Harris, Robert Donnell, F. R. Cossitt, and Reuben Burrow; and Messrs. James McReynolds, John Vining, and William S. Waterson. There were no better men in the Assembly or in the Church. The following is their report, which was adopted:
"Your Committee have conferred with the Rev. Messrs. John Barnett, and Aaron Shelby, and have received the following proposals:
On condition that the members of the Assembly will give their notes tot he amount of two thousand four hundred dollars, payable one-half next May, and the other half in May 1833, the said Barnett and Shelby will assume the payment of all the debts of the college of whatever kind or character existing at this date. Provided furthermore:
1. That the net profits of the printing office belong to the said Barnett and Shelby, for the term of four years from this date, together with the profits of the past year.
2. That after the current expenses of Cumberland College [page 145] are paid, the net profits arising from tuition, as they may be ascertained, belong to said Barnett and Shelby, for the four years next ensuing.
3. That all moneys now on hands not otherwise appropriated, either in the treasury or in the hands of individuals, together with all subscriptions, bonds, deeds, except the deed for the college farm, notes, accounts, &c., be given to the said Barnett and Shelby.
4. That the two brick-kilns belonging to Cumberland College, be transferred to said Barnett and Shelby.
5. That all moneys now or hereafter collected by Rev. John W. Ogden, and not otherwise appropriated, belong to said Barnett and Shelby, and that some one missionary be employed to make collections for four years.
Your committee recommend that the contract be entered into, provided that the said Barnett and Shelby, on their part, and the trustees on theirs, will comply with the following conditions: the
1. That the General Assembly, under this contract, have the paramount control of Cumberland College, as heretofore.
2. That the trustees have power to appoint all officers, and make contracts for the regulation of the literary, farming, and boarding departments, as heretofore; and to transact all other business which they are empowered to transact by the charter of the college, not interfering with this contract."
On the 24th of May, 1831, this contract was consummated by Messrs. Barnett and Shelby, and the Board of Trustees as the agents of the Assembly. This is not the place for inquiry, but the writer's impression has always been, that but little was ever received from the members of the Assembly, or from the printing office. These men were practical and energetic ministers of the gospel, it is true, nevertheless very well versed in managing matters of business. It was hoped, therefore, that under what was expected to be their vigorous financial administration, public confidence would be restored, and the probabilities of the success of the institution greatly increased.
Messrs. Cossitt and Anderson continued as the only teachers to the spring of 1832. In September of 1831 there were [page 146] four graduates: Thos. B. Reynolds, R. S. Dulin, R. B. Castleman, and Amos Andrews. Mr. Reynolds was a very promising young preacher. He went South and died early. Dulin studied law, entered the practice, went to Mississippi, and also died early. R. B. Castleman studied law, settled in Nashville, represented his county once, in early life, in the legislature, but turned his attention to business, and has amassed a good property. He still lives. Andrews went West, and it is supposed died early.
At a meeting of the Board of Trustees, April 30, 1832, Livingston Lindsay, after due examination, was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, for the space of one year, at a salary of five hundred and fifty dollars. This was considered an important addition to the Faculty. Mr. Lindsay had received his principal education at the University of Virginia. He brought a fine reputation with him to the college, and maintained it well to 1838, when he resigned his professorship, and entered upon the practice of law. Some years ago he removed to Texas, and settled at La Grange. It is understood that he occupies now a high legal position in that State.
The graduates of the year ending in September, were C. W. Ridgeley, of Baltimore, Maryland, W. G. Estill, of Winchester, Tennessee, Wm. H. Barnett, of Kentucky, and the writer of this article. Of this class C. W. Ridgeley was a native of Maryland. He returned and settled in Baltimore, as a lawyer, and became quite eminent. He perhaps still lives. W. H. Barnett, of Kentucky, studied medicine, and spent some years in Missouri in the practice of his profession. He returned to Kentucky, and settled a few miles from Princeton, where he died a few years ago. Young Mr. Estill is supposed to have studied law in Winchester, his native place. He went to Alabama in early life. An old catalogue of the college reports him as a lawyer. Mr. Anderson has been noticed elsewhere. Of the remaining member of this class, the writer, of course, says nothing.
Mr. Anderson, who closed his connection with the college as an instructor, with the close of the year, received the honorary degree of Bachelor of Arts. The day after the Com- [page 147] mencement, the writer was appointed Professor of Languages in the institution, at a salary of five hundred dollars per annum, and his board and washing.
On the 25th of June, 1832, the following preamble and resolution were adopted by the Board of Trustees, intended to take effect at the opening of the collegiate year, in November:
"WHEREAS, The General Assembly of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, held in May last, in Nashville, adopted a resolution recommending to the trustees of Cumberland College, to pass some ordinance, more effectually to preserve economy among the students, whilst members of said institution; therefore, on motion of J. H. Rackerby,
Resolved, That in future the students and faculty of said college be, and they are hereby advised to wear as their weekly apparel during winter, good strong woolen jeans, or cassinette; and for summer, flax linen, or hemp linen, or some other article of domestic manufacture, so as to secure the object contemplated by the General Assembly; also that each student be requested to furnish himself with a large and strong linen apron, which may be used when at work, so as to preserve his other clothes."
This would be a good recommendation to some of our faculties and college students now, omitting of course the counsel in relation to the aprons, as under our present system of operations they are not needed.
In the following November, the new Professor of Languages, as in duty bound, commenced his administration in a very common blue jeans coat. From a mistake of the tailor, in cutting, it was nearly large enough for two men of his size, but still he wore it, and found it very comfortable. His recollection of the outfit of the other members of the faculty is not so distinct, but of his own it is very distinct.
At the close of this year, 1833, we sent forth what was considered a large and respectable class. Cyrus Haynes, Wm. A. Scott, Richard Henry Ball, Lawrence N. Waddill, G. W. Smith, A. S. Mitchell, and Jesse Franklin Ford, were the graduates. Cyrus Haynes and J. F. Ford became respectable and beloved ministers, and are both dead. Waddill, Smith, and Mitchell [page 148] entered upon the practice of law; the two former are dead. Richard Henry Ball entered the ministry of the Protestant Methodist Church, and also acquired distinction as a teacher. Wm. A. Scott became the present Rev. Dr. Scott, of San Francisco, California.
In the fall of 1832, early in November, the cholera first made its appearance in Princeton. Some little alarm was produced in the college community, but no case occurred in it. The students and faculty remained together. No suspension of the daily routine of exercises was found necessary.
On the 19th of April, 1833, the trustees entered into an agreement with Messrs. Barnett and Shelby for the erection of a new college building. It was to be of brick, sixty-five feet in length, and thirty-nine in width, and two stories high, with passages above and below, crossing each other in such a way as to furnish eight blocks of rooms of suitable dimensions for dormitories. In what was called the garret story, lighted by dormar windows, were to be the chapel and two library rooms. The building was finished in due time. No recitation, or lecture rooms proper, were provided. The great object was to provide comfortable lodgings for the students as well as rooms to study. Some of the better dormitories were used by the instructors in hearing their classes, and the chapel was used for lectures and religious services. The accommodations were very imperfect, but they were far in advance, in both neatness and comfort, of those furnished by the original log building, and the cabin row. The exterior of the building presented very much the appearance of a Pennsylvania barn, but still we were able to bear any reproach from that source, as we were plainly going up rather than down. In consideration of this building, these brethren were to have the control of the finances an additional twelve years, making, with the five years already allowed them, seventeen years.
Sometime in the autumn of this year, 1833, Mr. Shelby sold his interest in the college to Mr. Harvey Young. Mr. Young was a most estimable man, and at once took charge of the farm and refectory, to the management of which both he and his family were well adapted. It was considered [page 149] a great accession, especially to the boarding house. Mrs. Young was long remembered there.
About the 1st of July, 1834, the cholera made its appearance a second time in Princeton. It was far more violent and fatal in its form and effects than it had been at its first appearance. Still it did not reach the college. It seemed a wonder, but still it was so. In a short time, however, the fever in a malignant form began to develop itself in the college community. A number of the students were attacked. Mr. Young became sick and died. The writer and his wife sick in different rooms in the boarding-house, and were not able to see each other for several weeks. All the students whose friends lived at a convenient distance, went home. It proved to be a loss of nearly an entire session. But one of the students, however, who remained at the college, died. Mr. Barnett, who lived in the neighborhood, lost his oldest son, a young man of fine promise, whose death has been mentioned in the notice of the class of 1830. The visitation was a severe blow upon the college. Mr. Barnett, who, as we shall find, failed to carry out his purpose and that of the trustees and the Assembly, in his appointment as manager of the fiscal affairs of the institution, always attributed his failure, in great part, to this providental dispensation. It was a heavy trial. The number of students was greater than it had been at any time since the raising of the price of board and tuition from sixty to eighty dollars. Besides, was we have seen, the income from almost an entire session was lost, whilst the expenses of the establishment were not diminished in equal proportion. An impression, too, began to be made on the public mind unfavorable to the healthfulness of the locality.
There were two graduates at the close of this year: Pleasant M. Griffin, of Winchester, Tennessee, and John A. Hanson, of Georgia. Young Griffin was educated for the ministry by the congregation of Winchester. He was a young man of fine promise, scholarly, amiable, and eloquent. His poverty urged him to the South. He settled in Franklin, Louisiana, and died in the course of his first year [page 150] there. Hanson returned to his native Georgia, and we only know that he grew into respectability and usefulness.
Mr. Young had died in the course of the year, and the trustees by an agreement between themselves and Mr. Barnett became a party with him in the management of the financial affairs of the college, and what had been the firm of Barnett and Shelby, and then of Barnett and Young, now became the firm of Barnett and the Board of Trustees.
There were several changes made along in these years in the time of holding the college Commencement. At first September was the time. It was then changed to the corresponding time in December, with a view to saving the firewood on the farm, a great deal of which was consumed in the winter months. By this change the vacation occurred in midwinter. The students however, were dissatisfied, and another change was made, and a specified day in July was settled upon as Commencement-day. The change, however, was not to take effect until the Commencement of 1835, which was still to take place in December. In this year we had three graduates: J. H. Whetsone, T. J. Houghton, and W. J. Houghton. Whetstone married early and settled in Ohio as farmer. T. J. Houghten studied law, and W. J. Houghton, medicine. Both settled in Alabama and died early.
The next commencement occurred in July, 1836. At this Commencement a large and promising class graduated. The members were J. R. Denton, J. S. Roane, J. C. Kirkpatrick, G. W. Usher, W. E. Barnett, J. W. Taylor, and J. M. Taylor, and D. R. Harris (honorary). Young Denton was an ordained preacher, and a young man of great promise. In his graduation, the valedictory address was assigned to him, which was the only badge of distinction given in the college. He was unwell, but delivered the address with unusual tenderness and solemnity. He wept freely in the delivery, and the assembly wept with him. It seemed afterwards a sort of foreshadowing of what was to come. At the close he went to his room, and to his bed; he suffered ten days or two weeks, and closed his promising life. It was felt to be a great inflic- [page 151] tion. He was educated at the expense of Rev. Robert Donnell, whom he always claimed as his beloved and honored foster-father. John S. Roane studied law, settled in Arkansas, acquired reputation in the Mexican war, became governor of his State, and died in the prime of life. Dr. J. C. Kirkpatrick still lives a respected citizen in his native State. G. W. Usher died early. William E. Barnett and Joseph W. Taylor still live, the former in Tennessee and the latter in Alabama. Mr. Taylor has acquired reputation both as a lawyer and a man of letters. Mr. Barnett studied law, but has directed his attention chiefly to business pursuits. James M. Taylor became a prominent physician in Louisiana.
A remark certainly deserves a place here which was often repeated forty years ago by those of us who were most closely connected with the events. Thomas B. Reynolds, Pleasant M. Griffin, and John R. Denton, were all young men of the first order of promise; had all just entered the ministry; were all educated tot he completion of their course, as our course of education was then established; and all died within the space of five years, when the college was struggling for life, and the Church that educated them seemed to be in the greatest need of just such men. We sometimes thought that such providences were dark shadows upon our educational path. God, however, works in his own way, and sometimes there is a cloud over it. If Cumberland Presbyterians have been destined, in his providence, for a educating people, he has certainly given some of them a severe preparatory training. Still he is right even if he occasionally, in his righteousness, administers the rod. We believe this and are quiet. Let him reign, because in his hands all is safe. After this little episode let us return to our narrative.
The combined administration Barnett and the trustees continued to 1837. The General Assembly met at Princeton, in May of that year. Those who felt the deepest interest in the affairs of the college, had become satisfied that a change of policy was necessary. The reverses growing out of the sickly season, and perhaps other causes, had produced great and general discouragement. The Assembly recommended the formation of a joint stock association, for the purpose of [page 152] carrying forward the operations of the institution, and paying its debts. These debts were occasionally changing hands, but still existed, and were pressing upon it like an incubus. It was hardly ever out of sight of the sheriff's hammer. Some new measure was necessary, and the one suggested appeared most likely to be successful. Mr. Barnett yielded to what seemed to be the exigencies of the case. An association was at once formed, and at a meeting of the Board of Trustees, held May 29, 1837, the following preamble and resolution were adopted:
"WHEREAS, The General Assembly of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, at their late sessions in Princeton, in May, 1837, passed a resolution requiring the Board of Trustees of Cumberland College to transfer and convey all the college property, both real and personal, to an association of individuals thereafter to be formed, upon the condition that said association, when formed, shall assume and pay all debts and demands against said college not exceeding, however, the sum of twelve thousand dollars ($12,000); and, whereas, said association has since been formed, and have stipulated the fulfilment of their part of the engagement required by the said General Assembly; therefore, on motion of P. B. McGoodwin,
Resolved, That the President of the Board, in his corporate capacity, be directed to execute and sign the necessary instrument or covenant by which all the property of said college, whether real or personal, which they hold as trustees, may be fully and effectually transferred and conveyed to the association aforesaid."
It will be observed that the meeting of the Board of Trustees, at which the preamble and resolution here recorded were adopted, was held on the 29th of May. According to the records of the association, the first meeting had been held on the 25th of May, four days preceding, and a regular organization had been effected on the 26th, three days anterior to the meeting of the Board. We have now a new order of things; Barnett and the Board of Trustees are superseded by the Cumberland College Association, or rather by the President and Directory of Cumberland College Association.
[page 153] The following is the preamble of the Constitution of the Association, setting forth its objects:
"WHEREAS, The Cumberland College has become involved in debt, and is in danger of failing to accomplish the benevolent objects of its establishment, for the want of pecuniary aid; and,
WHEREAS, The General Assembly of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church has proposed to transfer and convey all its right, title, and interest in, and to, all the property both real and personal, belonging to, or in any wise connected with said college, and has directed its transfer to be made by the trustees of the college, to an association of individuals, if one could be formed, which would assume all the pecuniary liabilities of the college; and,
WHEREAS, Such an association has been formed according to the proposition of said General Assembly;
Now the undersigned believing the college to be of great public benefit, and of vital importance to the community, in which it is located, to the world; and to the Church, have agreed, and do hereby agree, to form themselves into an association for the purpose of sustaining it, and perpetuating its advantages and blessings. And the more effectually to secure these ends, we do adopt and subscribe to the following constitution for the government of the Association."
The Constitution consisted of seventeen articles The second article set forth that "The stock shall be divided into shares of two hundred dollars each, and the subscription may be extended to any amount not prohibited by the charter of incorporation, and any person may become a member by subscribing one share."
The third article sets forth the object of the association: "The advancement, patronage, and promotion of the prosperity of the college."
The fourteenth article is the following: "The nomination of the trustees of the college shall belong to the Association." These nominations formerly belonged to the General Assembly.
The following is the fifteenth article: "The first object of the Association shall be the liquidation and settlement of the [page 154] existing debts against the institution, and afterwards the funds of the Association may be appropriated to any other useful purpose, by order of the Association, when a majority of all the members concur."
There were thirty-four subscribers representing thirty-two shares, to this constitution. Twenty shares were represented by shareholders themselves, and twelve by proxy. These latter shares had been taken by members of the Assembly and visitors who had left for home before the organization as completed. The members represented by proxy were Joel Lambert, Thomas Lambert, C. P. Reed, James Smith, Wm. L. Martin, T. C. Anderson, Thos. B. Wilson, J. C. Wear, John W. Ogden, F. C. Usher, Joseph Brown, and James Orr. The other members may be supposed to have been influenced partly, at least, by personal and local considerations; but it is a pleasure to record that we have always had men willing to give unselfishly for the Church and for humanity. The proxy members were scattered over the Church, and had no personal or local interest in the institution. Whatever the others may have been, their contributions were unselfish. Of the remaining twenty shares, but three of them had been taken by members of our own Church; the seventeen were held by members of other Churches, and even of the world. These particular facts are due to the truth of history. The college had friends abroad in the land, and in its own immediate vicinity. It had friends who were not members of our own Church. New life was given to the operations of the institution, and new hopes were inspired in the hearts of its friends.
The graduates of this year were J. G. Biddle, Stephen F. Hale, and B. G. Dudley. Mr. Biddle was already a licensed preacher, and devoted his life to the ministry and to the work of instruction. He was an estimable man, and died in Winchester, Tennessee, in April, 1857. Stephen F. Hale, from an unpromising beginning, became a distinguished lawyer and politician in Alabama, took an active part in the great struggle between the North and the South, was for a while a member of the Confederate Congress, and finally lost his life at the head of a Southern regiment, in one of the battles in Vir- [page 155] ginia. No nobler man on either side fell a victim to that unhappy conflict. Benjamin G. Dudley studied law and entered the practice; represented his county once or twice in the Legislature of Kentucky, but died young.
The graduates of 1838 were Robert D. Ray, and Thomas Johnson Phelps. Mr. Ray settled in the practice of law in Missouri. He became respectable in his profession, and, it is supposed, still lives. Young Mr. Phelps emigrated to California at an early time in the opening of that country. The graduating class was small, and the friends of the college, and especially of the new order of things, conceived the idea of a sort of literary festival, to give additional eclat to the occasion, and to the administration of the new dynasty which had been introduced the year before. A fine table was spread, ladies and gentlemen were present in large numbers. Mr. R. C. Ewing, who had just completed his junior year, and who has become the present Hon. R. C. Ewing, of Trinity University, delivered an address as the representative of the faculty and students, and the Hon. W. P. Fowler a response in behalf of Cumberland College Association. Every thing seemed to indicate promise and confidence. It was an imposing occasion, and a beautiful one of the kind.
In the course of the vacation which followed, the writer received a call to a professorship in Sharon College, Mississippi, which he accepted. Rev. F. C. Usher was appointed Professor of Languages in his stead. Mr. Usher was one of the early graduates of the institution. He had also spent three years, and graduated at Princeton Theological Seminary, in New Jersey. His connection with the institution continued to 1846, when he was called to the Principalship of what afterwards became Bethel College, at McLemoresville, West Tennessee. The understanding has been that he was not happy in his work there. His health failed, and in the year 1850 he left Tennessee, and returned to his native neighborhood in Kentucky, soon to die, as it turned out, among the friends of his youth. He was an amiable and good man, and deserved more at the hands of the Church than he ever received.
At the same time Mr. Lindsay severed his connection with [page 156] the institution, and entered upon the practice of law in Princeton. Mr. Lindsay was succeeded, after an interregnum of some time, by Rev. Mr. Payne, an Episcopal minister of the town. Mr. Payne was, in a great measure, a stranger in the community when he settled there, and altogether a stranger to the Church with which the college was connected. His connection with the institution continued a year, or a year and a half. In the course of that time the spirits of the Association had begun to flag. They grew discouraged, and it is apparent from the record, that the subject of transferring the institution to some other Christian denomination, with a view to a better patronage, was under consideration. Public rumor said that the transfer, if made, was to be made to the Episcopalians. How far Mr. Payne was responsible for such a direction of the minds of the association or others, it is not proposed to consider here. He, however, became very objectionable to the friends of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. It was very natural that he should have thought of making capital for his denomination from the state of things around him; but still he may not have done so. Let the matter rest.
It has been stated that the association were becoming discouraged. In 1837 they undertook their work. The report to the General Assembly of 1838 was encouraging. The next Assembly met in 1840. By that time discouragements had become very great. Preparatory to that Assembly a resolution was passed to be presented to that body, earnestly appealing to them "for aid and assistance to the college." In their report to the General Assembly, the association state distinctly that they had considered the question of transferring the college to some other Christian denomination, expressing at the same time their preference of the foster care of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, as the founder of the institution, could that care be rendered more effective. Dr. Cossitt and Mr. Usher made a vigorous appeal to the Church in a well written pamphlet, which was published and widely circulated previous to the meeting of the Assembly. This body met in May, at Elkton, Kentucky. The Church had certainly been aroused to some extent, and [page 157] the members of the Assembly seemed disposed to do something worthy of themselves and their constituents. They appeared to feel that a crisis was upon them. "A magnificent scheme was formed. If it had been carried into effective operation, it would have relieved the college from debt, and rendered it permanent, if not prosperous. It was proposed to raise one hundred thousand dollars for educational purposes. Fifty-five thousand dollars of that sum was to serve as a perpetual endowment of Cumberland College; thirty thousand was to be used in Pennsylvania, in the endowment of a college there; and the remaining fifteen thousand dollars was to constitute a sort of floating capital to be used as circumstances might suggest. Several of the most popular young men in the Church were engaged as agents; the people were not illiberal in their subscriptions, and everything seemed to promise well. Dr. Cossitt confidently believed that the college would be endowed, and the most liberal provision would be made for the education of the ministry. This last was always a controlling thought with him, as it has been with all the earnest educators in our Church. This thought originated the impulse which led to the establishment of Cumberland College at first, and afterwards to the establishment of Cumberland University."
Some time after the General Assembly in 1840, Rev. Cornelius G. McPherson was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, in the college. A brief notice of Mr. McPherson's life has been already given. He continued in the professorship until the revulsion, which will be noticed in its place, and became the first professor in his department at the organization of the institution at Lebanon. His connection with the college at Lebanon continued until the latter part of 1844, when he resigned.
Delegates had been appointed by the association to the General Assembly. On the occasion of their report to the association on their return, a difficulty presented itself. When the Assembly in 1837 surrendered the college to the association, it became, by the conditions of the surrender, and by a change of the charter, in fact, the property of the Association. The Assembly required in 1840, as a condition pre- [page 158] cedent to their endowing the institution with fifty-five thousand dollars, that the charter should be re-changed, so as to transfer the right in the property to the Church. The difficulty was an awkward one. The association were unwilling to give up the college until the endowment was raised, and they were thereby assured of its probable success; and the friends of the Assembly hesitated in their efforts towards the endowment, whilst the right of property and control still remained in the association. The first formal development of this difficulty occurred at a meeting of the association, December 4, 1840. On the 14th of December the parties came to an understanding. The particulars need not be mentioned.
A report was made tot he Assembly of 1841, and Dr. Cossitt, who had represented the association in the Assembly, made an encouraging and conciliatory report on his return. In the course of the year, however, from May, 1841, to May, 1842, the pecuniary difficulties of the college became so serious, that steps were taken towards selling the principal portion of the college-farm, and such other property as could be spared, with a view to liquidating its debts. This was the condition of things when the Assembly met in 1842. The institution was found to be deeply involved, its property under the sheriff's hammer; considerable sums had been subscribed as a part of the endowment of the fifty-five thousand dollars contemplated, but very little, if anything, had been realized. The result was, the Assembly resolved to remove the college to what they considered a more promising location, and a commission was appointed to make a selection, and authorized also to select a new Board of Trustees.
In the meantime the friends of the institution at Princeton, resolved to make vigorous efforts to disencumber it, as far as possible. All the land was sold except ten acres. Perhaps some other property was sold at the same time, as there were such stock and utensils as are used on a farm. The ten acres reserved, included the college buildings, the spring, and the old log college, which had been converted into a sort of boarding-house. With the college also the apparatus and library were saved, and the friends of the institution determined to try to revive and carry it forward. They took the [page 159] ground, too, in the controversy which grew up out of the action of the General Assembly, that however an institution of learning, located and chartered in Kentucky, might be abandoned by its patrons and former friends, it could not be removed. Dr. Cossitt and Mr. McPherson committed themselves to the fortunes of the new institution, which, in a few years became Cumberland University. Mr. Usher alone, of the faculty, remained with the old college.
Some time in the year 1843, the Presidency of the old college was offered to the writer, who then lived in Mississippi. The understanding was, that his colleagues were to be Rev. J. G. Biddle, as Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, and Rev. F. C. Usher, as Professor of Languages. It was, under all the circumstances, a very unpromising field of labor. The reader can appreciate it without an effort. And it is perhaps not out of place to say here, that one of the darkest days of his life up that time, was the day in which he determined to turn his back upon Mississippi for Kentucky. He left friends behind such as men do not always find in this world of selfishness and sin. Before him was the prospect of hard work, many discouragements, and of great peril as to the success of the enterprise. The world has never appreciated, and never will appreciate fully, all the motives which were controlling in that case. Nor is it important that they should. They are small matters now.
On the 1st day of October, 1843, he reached Cumberland College, which he had left five years before. Mr. Usher was on the ground and at work. Mr. Biddle had engaged in a female school in a neighboring town, and of course his services were not available in the college. There were seventeen students on the ground. The brick row, which has been mentioned already, was in ruins. The college bell was broken in pieces. There had been a great deal of recklessness and confusion connected with the closing up of the preceding year. Some of the old students had seemed to be ambitious to leave their foot-prints behind them. We had room enough, however, for the seventeen, and the few accessions which the new order of things brought in; and we did not much need a bell for so small a number.
[page 160] The first year closed in July of 1844; of course, without any graduates. Dr. Cossitt was with us at the exhibition which we called the Commencement. He met us with great kindness. We seemed to have already forgotten that we were connected with rival enterprizes.
In October of 1844, the Green River Synod met at Hopkinsville. A suggestion was made to the Synod, and it was only a suggestion, that it might extend its usefulness by taking the same relation to the college which had previously been sustained by the General Assembly. The suggestion was favorably received, and action looking to that end was promptly taken. In the course of the early winter, the proposition was submitted to the association and accepted. At the next General Assembly, which met in May of 1845, the Green River Synod was divided, and the Kentucky Synod was formed. The new Synod embraced the middle and upper counties of the State. That portion of the Church did not sympathize with us. We were, therefore, mainly limited in our territory to the portion of the State lying between Elkton and the Ohio river. It was a small space, but we were considered as engaged in a small enterprize-a forlorn hope. Cumberland College, from being the college of the whole Cumberland Presbyterian Church, had become the college of half a dozen counties in southwestern Kentucky.
At the close of our second year in July, 1845, we had one graduate. Philip Riley had commenced his education at Sharon College, Mississippi. He, with a few others, were added to the original seventeen two years before. After his graduation he returned to Mississippi, but was soon called back to the college to the Professorship of Languages. He afterwards became Professor of Languages in Bethel College, in West Tennessee. After some years he emigrated to Texas, and died about two years ago. He was a fine scholar, and one of the purest and best of men.
A year or two after we reorganized, we put up a brick building containing two recitation rooms and four dormitories, at a cost of about twenty-six hundred dollars. The material of the building was chiefly derived from the wreck [page 161] of the brick row which has been mentioned. The means were furnished from the town and immediate vicinity.
In July of 1847, we had a graduating class of three: W. S. Delany, E. C. Trimble, and J. D. McGoodwin. Mr. Delany was a son of one of our early and best preachers. After his graduation he served for some time as Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, and then for a time as Professor of Languages in the college. He studied law; lived a while in Memphis, and then in Nashville, and is now a prominent lawyer in Columbus, Texas. Two or three years ago he was a leading member of the Texas Legislature. Mr. Trimble was a licensed preacher when he entered college. After his graduation he settled in Paris, Tennessee; then went as a missionary to Louisville; returned to Paris; joined the Presbyterian Church, and was called to Jackson, Tennessee. During the war he had charge of a congregation in Edgefield, and is now laboring at some point in Indiana. J. D. McGoodwin studied law; published a paper in Princeton; moved it to Smithland, and then to Paducah. He died early.
In July of 1848, the graduates were A. B. Johnson, Benjamin Shropshire, and A. J. Baird. Mr. Johnson was also a son of one of the old preachers of Kentucky. He studied law; settled in Owensboro, Kentucky; became an efficient member and officer in the Church, and altogether a young man of fine promise, but died early. Mr. Shropshire engaged in the practice of law; emigrated to Texas, and settled in LaGrange; was elected to a circuit judgeship; was a young man of fine ability and worth, with very flattering prospects before him. He fell a victim to the yellow fever a few years ago. The remaining name is familiar. A. J. Baird of 1848, has become the Rev. Dr. Baird, the respected pastor of the First Cumberland Presbyterian congregation, of Nashville. He needs no record such as this article furnishes. His record is before the Church.
In 1849, we had our usual number of graduates, which seemed to have become almost stationary: W. B. Lambert, R. B. Lambert, and B. W. McDonnold. William B. Lambert entered the ministry while at college. After his gradua- [page 162] tion he settled at Newburgh, Indiana; married the daughter of Mr. Phelps; was a young man of excellent promise, but died early. Robert B. Lambert studied law, settled at Henderson, Kentucky; removed to Helena, Arkansas; entered the Confederate service at the commencement of the late war, and fell at the battle of Shiloh. B. W. McDonnold has become the Rev. Dr. McDonnold, late President of Cumberland University. His record too, is before the Church. He needs nothing from this source.
It is in place to mention here that this year we added a story to our main college building, at a cost of about four thousand dollars. The expense of this improvement also was borne mainly by the town and vicinity. In the mean time we had Rev. W. G. L. Quaite employed in the work of endowing the institution. His success was encouraging, as we shall see hereafter. He was followed at the proper time by Mr. C. T. Casky, as collector, whose success was also encouraging.
The graduating class of 1850 was one of the largest that had ever left the institution in its most prosperous days: A. G. Quaite, J. M. Quaite, J. P. Webb, J. A. McNary, A. B. George, James Vinson, W. D. Beard, and J. D. Cowen. Of these J. M. Quaite died early. J. D. Cowen entered the ministry, but has been dead several years. A. B. George is practicing law successfully at Minden, Louisiana, and W. D. Beard at Memphis, Tennessee. J. P. Webb practices medicine at Little Rock, Arkansas. James Vinson has devoted himself to teaching and to the ministry in Kentucky. J. A. McNary practices law in Kentucky, and A. G. Quaite is a prosperous planter of Phillips county, Arkansas.
It should have been mentioned, that at some time previous to this, Rev. Azel Freeman, of Newburgh, Indiana, was appointed to the Professorship of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the college. He accepted the appointment, and continued with us to 1853. Mr. Freeman is a fine scholar and an excellent educator. His labors with us, and afterwards in connection with Dr. Baird, in the same institution, and still again at the head of Bethel College, and Lincoln University, will furnish material for one of the best [page 163] chapters in the history of our educational work. On the occasion of his resignation, the Board of Directory adopted the following preamble and resolutions:
"WHEREAS, Rev. Professor Azel Freeman has this day resigned his Professorship in Cumberland College; and, whereas, the Board feels the deepest regret that he considers it necessary to retire from the institution; therefore, on motion it was
Resolved, That the thanks of this Board be tendered to Prof. Freeman for his untiring devotion to the interests of our beloved institution, and for his fidelity in the discharge of the duties of his station;
Resolved, Further, that the Board feels under the strongest obligations to him for his Christian, moral, and literary influence upon the institution, during his professorship;
Resolved, Also, that the Secretary transmit a copy of the foregoing resolutions to Prof. Freeman.
W. H. MILLER, Sec'y, pro tem.
FEBRUARY 17, 1853.
We return to the thread of our narrative. The graduating class of 1851 consisted of T. W. Wilson, J. D. Watkins, J. W. Blue, R. D. Gwin, and W. H. Miller, and J. M. Roach (honorary). Of these, Mr. Wilson is engaged in business in Little Rock, Arkansas. J. D. Watkins has become Judge J. D. Watkins, of Minden, Louisiana. J. W. Blue is a successful lawyer in lower Kentucky, and has also served in the Legislature of his State. R. D. Gwin is an eminent physician in Western Tennessee. W. H. Miller settled in Princeton, in the practice of law, was considered a young man of promise, but died early. Mr. Roach was already a minister and teacher of some eminence, but died in the prime of life.
The class of 1852 were W. C. McGehee, M. W. Baker, W. P. Nichols, B. F. Bailey, Gideon Rucker, and T. H. Young. Mr. McGehee had entered the ministry when he graduated. From poverty and from vicious influences he had been brought into one of our Sabbath-schools when a boy, by a zealous ruling elder of the Church; he professed religion [page 164] and his thoughts turned to the ministry. By the aid of his friend, the elder, he went through a regular course at the college. He married a Christian young lady in Princeton, and spent his ministerial life there and in the vicinity. He died greatly beloved a few years ago. T. H. Young was afterwards, under the administration of Dr. Baird, made Professor of Natural Science in the college, and afterwards of Natural Science and Languages. M. W. Baker settled in Texas as a lawyer. W. P. Nichols commenced life a teacher. B. F. Bailey and Gideon Rucker became lawyers.
In 1834, the subject of theological school instruction was first introduced into the General Assembly, but in the following Assembly of 1835, it was ruthlessly killed off. In 1848, it was again revived. At first the proposition was to establish a Theological Department in Cumberland College, but upon the revival of the question, Cumberland University had come into existence, and was in a flourishing state. Of course the mind of the Church was divided upon the subject of the locality. At the General Assembly of this year, 1852, which we have reached in our brief sketch, the question was decided in favor of the present locality. A good deal of agitation preceded, but the settlement was made with encouraging unanimity.
The graduating class of 1853 is rendering a good account of itself. S. P. Chesnut, after graduating, was appointed Professor of Languages in the institution, a position which he held to January, 1855. He subsequently entered the Theological School, at Lebanon, and graduated in 1858; was appointed to the mission at Clarksville, where he continued until he took charge of the Banner of Peace, a few years ago. From that time he has been prominently before the Church. W. P. Caldwell studied law in the school at Lebanon, and in addition has become a politician; has been once or twice a member of the Legislature of Tennessee, and is now a member of Congress. J. H. Lowry studied law at the school in Lebanon, settled at Elkton, Kentucky, but unfortunately has become partially disabled from paralysis; still, however, under such difficulties, he plies his chosen profession. H. F. McNary is growing into eminence as a physician in Prince- [page 165] ton, his native place. A. M. McGoodwin inherited a lawyer's mantle, and it is supposed, has worn in worthily.
We are approaching the close of the writer's administration of the affairs of the college. The class of 1853 was the last graduating class under his supervision. Early in that year he received a call to the situation which he now occupies, and determined to accept it. About the same time in which this determination was formed, Mr. Francis G. Cummings, of Philadelphia, and a graduate of the High School of that city, having accepted a call to the Professorship of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, in Cumberland College, arrived among us, and entered upon his work. Mr. Cummings was a scholar of high order, and a most estimable gentleman, but hardly prepared for the rough and rugged work of a southwestern college. He remained about a year and a half, and left.
It is hoped that the reader will tolerate a transcript from the records of the Board of Directory, in relation to the closing scenes of the writer's connection with the college. The history of the institution is the subject of this article, and these proceedings make up a part of the material of that history. It is proper to remark that Rev. A. J. Baird had been elected to fill the vacancy about to be made, and was already upon the ground, and ready to commence his work. The following is the record:
"February 13, 1854. Rev. R. Beard, D.D., having heretofore notified this Board of his purpose about this time to remove from this place, and settle in the State of Tennessee, this day handed in his resignation as President of Cumberland College, and also as President of this Board; and the Board now being without a presiding officer, on motion, D. W. McGoodwin was nominated and appointed President of this Board, pro tem.
The letter of Dr. Beard being read, on motion, the same was ordered to be spread upon the minutes as follows:
CUMBERLAND COLLEGE, February 13, 1854.
To the members of the Board of Directory:
GENTLEMEN-It has been known for some time that I intended, at the close of the present session, to terminate my [page 166] connection with this institution. Having been invited to what, I trust, will prove a position of greater usefulness, I yield to the call, and now resign the Presidency of Cumberland College, the Presidency of this Board of Directory, and my membership therein. Ten years and a half I have been connected with the college as its presiding officer, and eight years and a half with your Board in the same capacity. We have labored together in the promotion of a good and a great object. I consider that he who is devoted to the intellectual and moral education of his fellow-men, is one of their chief benefactors. We have not only co-operated, but as far as my knowledge extends, we have done so in general, if not in perfect, harmony. I am not aware that there has ever been a collision of feeling between myself and any member of this Board. This is certainly a reflection of deep interest, and great pleasure to me now. Although called, as I believe providentially, to leave you, I rejoice that I leave you with prospects so promising. May you realize your highest hopes in the permanency and increased prosperity of this venerated and beloved institution! I trust it will long live and flourish. Gentleman, I bid you, officially, a respectful adieu.
The Board adjourned, to meet at 6 o'clock, P.M., at the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.
Six o'clock, P.M., the Board of Directory met according to adjournment.
According to appointment, a large collection of citizens of Princeton and its vicinity assembled at the Church, and the throne of grace being appropriately addressed by Rev. A. J. Baird, Dr. Beard delivered his valedictory address to the students of Cumberland College, and the Board of Directory, and also to the citizens at large.
Rev. A. J. Baird was now regularly installed as President of Cumberland College, and afterwards being introduced to the audience by the President pro tem. of the Board, he delivered his inaugural address.
The public exercises being now over, on motion of Rev. George D. McLean, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:
[page 167] 'Resolved, That the thanks of this Board are due, and are hereby tendered, to the retiring President, Dr. Richard Beard, for his faithful services for a series of years as President of this institution, and of this Board.
Resolved, That this Board yield reluctantly to the necessity which is laid upon them, of parting with an officer of the institution who has done so much for the promotion of its interests, and for the cause of education in our midst.
Resolved, That the sympathies and best wishes of this Board will accompany our esteemed late President wheresoever his lot may be cast, and into whatsoever field of usefulness he may be called to labor.'
J. H. RACKERBY, Sec'y."
The presentation of a beautiful copy of the Bible, by a committee of the students, closed the exercises of this interesting occasion.
The new President entered upon his administration in the middle of the collegiate year, but with great earnestness and vigor, and with prospects comparatively very flattering. The year closed with a respectable number of students, and a graduating class of six. One young man, a beloved and promising ordained preacher, J. J. Wilson, who would have graduated, died in the course of the last session of his senior year. The graduates were J. C. Armstrong, A. J. Patterson, G. S. Howard, A. B. Stark, E. P. Campbell, and P. H. Crider (English Department). J. C. Armstrong was our first missionary to a distant land. P. H. Crider is in the ministry. G. S. Howard and A. B. Stark were soon called to Professorships in McGee College, and the latter has done something in the publishing line, and is now A. B. Stark, LL.D., of Russellville, Kentucky. E. P. Campbell has become a highly respectable lawyer. A. J. Patterson settled in Paducah, and for a time conducted a paper there.
The entrance upon the following collegiate year, in September of 1854, was said to be unusually auspicious. Everything seemed to be encouraging to the new administration. The number of students was large, and the faculty had been strengthened by the addition of two new Professors. In the course of the first session of the year, the subject of selling [page 168] the old building and the property connected with it, and erecting a new building more convenient to the town, was seriously considered. But from some cause difficulties arose, and on the 29th of January, 1855, Mr. Baird tendered his resignation of the Presidency. His resignation being accepted, Prof. Azel Freeman, who had been a second time placed in the chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the institution, was appointed President pro tem. Mr. Chesnut, who had occupied the chair of Ancient Languages, having resigned, as it appears, about the same time, Mr. Young, who had been placed in charge of the Department of Physical Science, was appointed, in addition, to the charge of the Department of Ancient Languages. Both these gentlemen accepted the new appointments.
Mr Freeman seems to have held his pro tempore appointment but a short time, since we find that at a meeting of the Board, May 3, 1855, "Rev. M. Bird was duly elected President of Cumberland College."
The graduating class of 1855 consisted of H. D. Onyett, G. W. Kinsolving, J. H. Nickell, and R. L. McGoodwin. The three first had already entered the ministry. Mr. Onyett is still living, and has grown into usefulness and a high degree of respectability. J. H. Nickell promised well, but died in early life. G. W. Kinsolving became a victim of the early part of our late war. R. L. McGoodwin holds a respectable and lucrative office in his native county in Kentucky.
It is in place to mention here, that there may have been other graduating classes after this, but we have no means of information on the subject. If there were such, however, it is probable that they were small, as the institution was struggling with great difficulties and discouragements through the remaining years of its existence.
On the 9th of July, 1855, we have the following record:
"The President and Directory of Cumberland College Association convened this day, and after mature deliberation in regard to the endowment of Cumberland College, it was unanimously resolved to adopt the plan of securing a permanent endowment by the sale of scholarships, perpetual and transferable, for the sum of one hundred dollars each, [page 169] provided that no scholarship at that price is to be used as such, until the number of three hundred scholarships are taken, and notes of good and solvent men shall have been executed, payable to the Board of Directory of Cumberland College, at Princeton, Kentucky, when the aforesaid number of three hundred scholarships are taken; the notes to bear interest from the time the said number shall be taken."
This, after what we have seen, has very much the appearance of the last straw to a drowning man. Like such a straw, it did not save. It was, however, tested. Three important men connected with the college were at once appointed as agents, to sell scholarships. Two days afterwards, three active young men, two of them Alumni of the institution, were appointed to the same service. Others were added from time to time. The writer has in his possession eighteen or twenty notes for one hundred dollars each, given in conformity with this plan. It is supposed, however, that the number fixed upon was never completed, and the scheme came to nothing.
At some time previous to his death, Rev. John Barnett, in some form, made a donation of one thousand dollars to Cumberland College. This is worthy of record as an illustration of the estimate placed by the fathers of this Church upon collegiate education. It is furthermore worthy of notice as an illustration of the later feelings of the donor, after so long and so bitter an experience in his previous relations to the college. It is not an unmeaning aphorism that "the ruling passion is strong in death." There was some difficulty in collecting the money. On May, 1857, we have a record of a compromise with the administrator, by which the college realized eight hundred dollars of the donation or bequest. Some of us would say, with our experience, that this was a very successful compromise.
The Board of Directory seem to have experience a great deal of difficulty along in the times under review, in obtaining suitable teachers. Mr. Riley had been called once or twice previously, and had declined. The call was renewed in one of their exigencies. Rev. A. B. Miller, the present Dr. Miller of Waynesburg College, was called to their aid [page 170] two or three times, but always declined. Other unsuccessful efforts were made. Such repeated failures were, of course, very discouraging, and at a meeting on May 6, 1858, they adopted a resolution, "in consequence of the drooping and
declining state of the college," to appoint a President and Professors for a number of years. Rev. H. W. Pierson, of the Presbyterian Church, was accordingly appointed President, and Mr. H. B. Barton, Professor of Ancient Languages. Mr. Pierson accepted, and Mr. Barton declined. Mr. Hiram J. Gordon was then appointed Professor of Languages, and Mr. Thomas M. Ballantine, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Science. The Board of Directory surrendered the entire control of the college to the new faculty, with all the income from endowment, tuition, room-rent, and from every other source for the term of ten years. The surrender was absolute, and it was perhaps the best they could do. It seemed evident that they could not obtain teachers from the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. A report of the proceeding was duly made to the Green River Synod, at its meeting in October of the same year.
In the report to the Synod in October of 1859, the number of students is placed at eighty, and the interest on the endowment at one thousand one hundred and sixty-three dollars and forty-five cents. This interest, however, must have been accruing for several years. They had a good beginning for an endowment, but not sufficient investments to have produced such an amount of interest annually. It would seem that the operations of the institution might have proceeded smoothly enough with such a patronage, and at least considerable support from the endowment. But from the record of a meeting of the Board of Directory, January 8, 1861, it appears that the President, Mr. Pierson, had abandoned the institution in July of the preceding year. The reasons are not given. They may have arisen out of the unsettled state of the politics of the country which preceded the war. Whatever they may have been, this effort of the Board of Directory seems to have been the last ever made for the perpetuation of the institution.
We have reliable information in addition to the preceding [page 171] record, that the operations of the institution terminated in June or July of 1860.
The people of Princeton and its vicinity, however, had been so long accustomed to a college, and felt its advantages so sensibly, that they made another rally, and determined to establish a college in the town upon different principles. The principles need not be stated here. A good building was erected. The library and apparatus of the old institution were bought for a trifle, and placed in the new. The college property had been held by the directory in trust, only for college purposes, and ceasing to be used for such purposes, of course reverted to the original proprietors, and thus the institution, after a struggle of thirty-five years, ceased to be. Peace to its ashes and honor to its memory! It deserved a better destiny. In some of its facts its record is imperishable. Many of its alumni have left a bright record behind them, and others are to-day leaving their foot-prints deeply marked upon society. Could the alma mater speak from the dust, she would exultingly say, "These are my testimonials; these are my jewels which I bequeath to the world." Noble and earnest men, may their shadows never grow less, but as pillars of cloud, or pillars of fire, may they always be found guiding the feet of wanderers into the way of truth, and righteousness, and peace!
ADDENDA. In my brief references to the graduating classes from year to year, I have relied chiefly upon my personal recollections. There were graduating classes, however, before I became acquainted with the college, and also during my absence in Mississippi. I am able to supply what would be felt as a want, from an old catalogue fortunately in my possession. From the early operations of the college, the graduates of 1827 were Fielding Jones and J. Moore. Mr. Jones settled in Texas, and attained to some eminence in the practice of law. Dr. John Moore settled in St. Louis, and reached a professorship in a medical college there. These gentlemen are probably both living. In 1828, the graduates were A. W. Wadlington, H. B. King, and F. C. Usher. Of the two former the writer knows nothing. A notice of Mr. Usher has already been recorded. The class of 1829 con- [page 172] sisted of A. Delany, J. McCutcheon, F. E. Calhoon, J. A. Copp, and W. McBride. Young Mr. Delany studied law, but died early. J. McCutcheon was a Kentuckian, and perhaps devoted himself to teaching. F. E. Calhoon studied law and settled in Mississippi, but hardly reached middle life. J. A. Copp distinguished himself in the ministry, became the Rev. Dr. J. A. Copp, of Chelsea, Massachusetts, where he died a few years ago. Mr. McBride settled in Mississippi in the practice of law.
The graduates of 1839, 1840, 1841, and 1842, were Isaac W. Taylor, L. M. Flournoy, John M. Macpherson, W. E. Warfield, J. H. Phelps, H. S. Porter, and S. G. Burney. Mr. Taylor entered the practice of law, settled in St. Louis, and died a few years ago in the prime of life. L. M. Flournoy settled in Paducah in the practice of law. J. M. Macpherson was already a minister, and still lives honored and respected by his brethren. W. E. Warfield is a respectable Kentucky planter. P. H. Phelps, if he lives, is practising medicine in California. The name of H. S. Porter is familiar. He was a brilliant light, and has left a record which needs no addition from this sketch. Dr. S. G. Burney is also one of those who need no record here. He has made his own record in the pulpit, at the head of Union Female College, and in the Department of English Literature in the University of Mississippi.
[Source: Beard, Richard. "Sources and Sketches of Cumberland Presbyterian History. No. V." The Theological Medium. A Cumberland Presbyterian Quarterly. April 1876, pages 129-172] Original page numbers are in brackets.
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