S I X T H    P E R I O D .




The earthquake was past, and our temple stood without a rent in its walls. We had felt the shock only to learn new lessons about the firmness of that Rock on which our house is builded. After 1870 the spirit of unity and fraternity in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church grew rapidly, and there is more union of heart among our people now than ever before.

The General Assembly of 1871, which met at Nashville, Tennessee, was harmonious and full of hope. The quarterly system of collections by pastors, which had been suspended for one year, was by this Assembly promptly, and with great unanimity, restored.

The Assembly of 1872, at Evansville, Indiana, appointed a day of prayer for colleges, and called on the whole church to join in its observance. The great want of the church was men. All keenly felt this want; and the struggle to train men for their work in the ministry was embarrassed by the overwhelming bankruptcy of all the Southern people. Besides this general bankruptcy, which surpassed all description, there was in the Southern States a sad lack of young men. Many from both sections who had been the hope of church and state were sleeping in coffinless graves on the myriad battle-fields of the civil war. Our church was very weak in the Northern States, and the hope of a supply of recruits for [449] the broken ranks of the ministry was but faint. Hitherto, the most of our preachers, even in the Northern States, had come from that South which was now to a large extent demoralized and in ruins. The day of prayer was well timed and was generally observed, and as the history of our colleges will show, it was not observed in vain.

At this Assembly the announcement was officially made of the death of the Rev. Milton Bird, D.D., the stated clerk. Dr. Bird is one of those characters that will grow in our esteem as the years sweep away and all littleness and party prejudices die out. He belonged to no section, no party; and because he would not bow down and worship at any partisan shrine, the true grandeur of his soul was not appreciated in the days of mad partisan extremes. Ruling Elder John Frizzell was elected stated clerk in Dr. Bird's place. Mr. Frizzell had special adaptedness to this work, and the announcement that he could be secured to fill this vacancy gave universal satisfaction.

This Assembly warned our churches and people against bad books. Most of the session was occupied in considering the revised Form of Government, which had long been under discussion, and which, after three references to the presbyteries, was at last laid on the table indefinitely.

The Assembly of 1873 was held at Huntsville, Alabama. One matter of special interest came before this body. Dr. A.J. Baird, who had been sent as corresponding delegate to the General Assembly of the Northern Presbyterian Church, in session at Baltimore, Maryland, telegraphed that a committee to consider organic union with Cumberland Presbyterians had, at his request, been appointed by the Presbyterian Assembly, and he asked our Assembly if it would appoint a similar committee. Dr. Baird had, on his own responsibility, made this proposition, and the Presbyterian Assembly had acted on it. Our Assembly appointed the committee asked for, and thus another fruitless movement looking toward organic union was inaugurated.

The two committees thus appointed had a very pleasant and fraternal conference at Nashville, Tennessee, beginning February 25th, 1874, and continuing through the next day. The members [450] of the Cumberland Presbyterian committee present were Drs. Richard Beard, J.B. Mitchell, A.J. Baird, and A.B. Miller. Among the members of the Presbyterian committee were Drs.H.A. Nelson, of Cincinnati, Ohio; Joseph T. Smith, of Baltimore, Maryland; and Charles A. Dickey, of Saint Louis, Missouri. But in this case, as in the conference at Memphis six years before with the committee of the Southern branch of the Presbyterian Church, the only basis of union submitted by the Presbyterians was the Westminster Confession of Faith. In the Nashville conference the Presbyterians did not even promise to submit to their Assembly the plan of union proposed by the Cumberland Presbyterian committee, but recommended that negotiations should be continued. As in the conference at Memphis, so at Nashville the Cumberland Presbyterian committee went to great lengths in trying to devise a plan upon which the two churches could unite. The plan proposed in the latter case was as follows:

We, the committee on the part of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, submit the following as a basis of union between our church and the Presbyterian Church here represented:

1.--That both Confessions of Faith shall be retained as they are, and shall be regarded as of equal authority as standards of evangelical doctrine; and hereafter in the licensure of candidates, and in the ordination of ministers or other officers of the church, or on any other occasion when it shall be necessary to adopt a Confession of Faith, it shall be left to the choice of the individual as to which of these he shall adopt.

2.--That the Form of Government and Discipline of the Presbyterian Church shall be the Form of Government and Discipline of the united church.

3.--That the united church shall be known as the Presbyterian Church of the United States of America.

The impression went abroad that the joint committee had agreed to this plan of union, and such an impression prevailed among the members of the next Cumberland Presbyterian Assembly; but neither the published records of the joint committee nor the original manuscript minutes of its meetings justify any such conclusion.

To the plan of union proposed by our committee the Presbyterian committee responded in these words:

[451] The committee on the part of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church haying considered the prayer presented by our brethren, cordially respond:

1.--That this paper and our familial conference of this morning confirm the impressions and hopes indicated in our previous paper, and our desire for the continued and increased intercourse, cooperation, and united prayer of the ministers and people of both churches which that paper recommends.

2.--That in our judgment it is desirable that such intercourse be continued, and the mutual acquaintance of the two churches become more extensive and intimate before their General Assemblies shall be called upon to act upon any plan of union.

3.--That in submitting the proceedings of this joint committee to our respective Assemblies we recommend the appointment of a joint committee for continued conference and for promoting intercourse and acquaintance between the two bodies during the next year.

The one thing which the joint committee agreed upon was that the negotiations should be continued. This was the only question connected with this matter which the Cumberland Presbyterian Assembly of 1874, at Springfield, Missouri, was called upon to decide. The discussion of this subject, however, which was not free from ill-feeling, took a far wider range. The Assembly finally adopted a resolution which, without expressing any opinion on the proposed plan of union, declared it inexpedient to continue the negotiations. This forestalled the action of the Presbyterian Assembly, and the whole matter was dropped.

There are two false ideas that ought never again to deceive us or our Presbyterian brethren. One is the hope on their part that our people will sometime adopt unchanged the Westminster Confession of Faith. The other is the belief among Cumberland Presbyterians that Presbyterians are ready to accept our doctrinal platform. Both parties are honest and conscientious, and so long as there exist such important differences in doctrinal views, they can work with more harmony and love in separate ecclesiastical organizations. The union which Christ prayed for is not an outward visible union, else we would all be driven back into the Roman Catholic church. Outward union is vain and worthless when union of heart and spirit do not accompany it. Union of heart often binds Christians of different churches closer together [452] than brothers of the same family. We should cultivate this loving spirit, and wait till God's providence prepares the way for outward oneness. We can cordially cooperate in promoting such preparation, but we can not force it.

All the propositions made by Presbyterians for conference about union with Cumberland Presbyterians have contained evidence that the union to be taken into consideration was, according to the Presbyterian view, to be on the basis of the Westminster standards. Thus the Presbyterian Assembly (Southern), in appointing a committee to meet a similar committee from our church, used this language:

In practically carrying out this idea {viz.; of a union}, the Assembly, laying aside ecclesiastical etiquette, would affectionately say to their brethren of the Associate Reformed Synod, that they may pull the latch-string of our dwelling whenever they may choose, and may be incorporated with us upon the simple adoption of our standards, whenever these may happen to differ from their own; and to our brethren of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, we respectfully suggest whether the time has not come to consider the great importance to the kingdom of our common Master of their union with us by the adoption of the time-honored standards to which we adhere.

In the conference with the committee of the Southern branch of the Presbyterian Church their only proposition was that we should take the Westminster Confession unchanged. In the conference with the representatives of the other branch of the Presbyterian Church six or seven years afterward, nothing was offered our committee but the Westminster Confession unchanged. In a movement originated by individuals in California, the Presbyterian synod on the Pacific coast proposed that the Cumberland Presbyterian synod be consolidated with it on the basis of the Westminster Confession unchanged. What ground individual members of our church gave our dear Presbyterian brethren to encourage them to make such offers is an inquiry whose investigation would not be for our edification.

The Assembly of 1874 was rendered memorable by the visit of Dr. James Morrison and Dr. Fergus Ferguson, corresponding delegates from the Evangelical Union Church of Scotland. The profound scholarship of Dr. Morrison made him a fitting companion [453] for Dr. Beard, and it was interesting to see how these two scholars "took to each other."

Ferguson is a genial, witty man, and a thorough Scotchman. A preacher who had been chaplain in the Southern army was Ferguson's room-mate. General Holland, at whose house they were quartered, had been a commander in the Northern army. The two army men became warm friends at their first meeting, and they showed great fondness for talking over war experiences. Ferguson listened in amazement. At last he broke forth with his strong Scotch accent: "I don't understand it, General. Just a little while ago he was preaching to the soldiers, and you were shooting at him. Now here you both are cheek by jowl together, like the best friends in the world." Yes, and the best friends in the world they are still, whether a Scotchman can understand it or not. But they are not any warmer friends to each other than they both are to that quaint, original, genial son of Caledonia, who published a pleasant little book about his trip to Springfield.

The custom of sending corresponding delegates to bear fraternal greetings to General Assemblies and conferences was then at its zenith. For fourteen years it had been growing. The churches which generally had representatives on the floor of our Assembly were the Presbyterian (both branches), the Lutheran, the Evangelical Union, the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian, the Congregational, and sometimes others.

The address of the Rev. J.S. Hays, corresponding delegate from the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America to the Cumberland Presbyterian Assembly of 1874, is here presented:

For two reasons no service could be more agreeable to me than that of being the bearer to you of the Christian salutations of that branch of the church to which I belong. In the first place, after observing the spirit and temper of my church toward you as manifested in our General Assembly one year ago, I am able to present these greetings without a single misgiving as to the sincerity and cordiality of those for whom I speak. And then the old animosities that were engendered by the separation which took place before we were born have all been happily buried and forgotten. There is but little diversity and much in common in our history and doctrines and discipline. We serve the [454] same Master and fight against the same enemy in the hope of the same glorious reward.

In a communication received by the Presbyterian General Assembly a year ago, you were pleased to speak of us as the mother church. I am happy to reciprocate the compliment and assure you, in return, of the mother's great pride in recognizing her daughter. It is true, I presume, that some of our very proper people regard the daughter in her religious enjoyments sometimes as a little demonstrative, as possibly some of your more demonstrative people regard the mother as a little too sedate. It is also true, perhaps, that some of our very orthodox people regard your belief as a little flexible, as doubtless some of your flexible people regard the mother a little rigid. Such differences we may expect, but I assure you that there is on our part a deep, strong current of respect, affection, and love such as a mother feels for her child.

When your representative, Dr. A.J. Baird, one year ago in our General Assembly, expressed a desire for the formation of a stronger bond of union between us--a desire, indeed, for organic union if it could be satisfactorily accomplished--his words were met in our Assembly with a round of applause, the meaning of which it was impossible to misunderstand. Upon the spot and without a dissenting voice a committee was appointed to meet and confer with a similar committee from your own body for the purpose of ascertaining if such a union could be effected. We have not yet heard the report of that committee; but it is understood that it was only a royal courtship, not a wedding nor an engagement for a wedding. Perhaps the committees were right about it. We have had a wedding of that sort in our house recently. There are those among us--and I am free to confess that I am one of them--who have never been able to see any indispensable necessity for organic union in order to genuine cooperation and the most cordial fraternal relations. I understand that many of you hold the same opinion.

Now, what sort of unity in the church of Christ would be productive of the greatest amount of efficiency and fraternity, is a question that can not be passed over lightly or easily by our corresponding committees. No more important or delicate question is now before the church. However it may be settled, I am sure that there is a deep and wide-spread desire in my own church for some such organic union as that which was suggested to you by the memorial of Drs. Crosby, McCosh, and others in regard to union among Presbyterians. For such a union, especially with your church, we are ready to labor and pray. If at any future time a full organic union can be effected on terms alike honorable and agreeable to all, we will thoroughly rejoice. If not, we [455] will still stand side by side and shoulder to shoulder with you in the strife against evil, and we will defer our little differences about election and other matters until we pass beyond the vale and sit at the feet of Jesus, where we will enjoy better instruction than that which we now receive from the lips of a Beard or a Hodge.

I was intensely interested yesterday in hearing your educational and missionary reports read. With many of the statements I was highly gratified, and when I make my report to my own General Assembly I shall try to convey to them the same impression that was made upon my mind while I listened.

When we, as Presbyterians, look out upon this broad land and observe the millions that are swarming into it, and when we look out upon the broader field, which is the world, and hear the cries that come to us for help which it is impossible for us to give, it is with the profoundest interest that we watch the increasing strength and hail the rising power of vigorous young churches like your own, marching under the same banner, calling themselves by the same name, and proclaiming substantially the same faith.

Laying upon your table the minutes of our last General Assembly, in which you will see an exhibit of our present condition and future prospects, permit me to close as I commenced, by tendering to you the fraternal greetings and the cordial sympathies of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America.

The Presbyterian Church (Old School) sent its first delegate to the Cumberland Presbyterian General Assembly in 1860. Delegates came regularly after that. By and by the churches generally concluded to convey these fraternal greetings by letter, and not send delegates in person. Only the colored Cumberland Presbyterians now send corresponding delegates to our Assembly, and there exist special reasons in their case for still keeping up the old custom.

The Assembly of 1875 met at Jefferson, Texas. An interesting item in the business of this meeting was the presentation to the Assembly, by Joseph W. Allen, of Nashville, of an elegant gavel, made from wood which grew on the McAdow farm near the spot where the first Cumberland Presbyterian presbytery was organized.

The Assembly of 1876 met at Bowling Green, Kentucky; that of 1877 at Lincoln, Illinois. At the Assembly of 1878, which was held at Lebanon, Tennessee, Caruthers Hall, one of the buildings of Cumberland University, was dedicated.

[456] The Assembly of 1879, at Memphis, Tennessee, introduced one new feature. It set apart a whole day for the discussion of topics connected with Sunday Schools. In actual Sunday School work our people were doing far too little, and though we have since then made decided improvement, yet the statistical report for 1886 shows only a little over half as many Sunday School scholars as members of the church. Not until 1883 was it decided to have a general superintendent of Sunday Schools for the whole church. Dr. M.B. DeWitt was elected to this office, but as no provisions were made for his salary, and as his time was fully employed with his duties as a pastor, he was unable to devote himself to this work. He resigned in 1886. The Rev. J.H. Warren, his successor, has done good service, collecting many valuable statistics and preparing the way for a greater work in the future. One collection each year from all the congregations in the church, to be taken up on a Sunday designated as "Children's Day," is hereafter to be devoted to the payment of the salary of the general superintendent and the support of Sunday School interests.

Dr.E.D. Morris, corresponding delegate from the Presbyterian Church (Northern), delivered an address in the Cumberland Presbyterian Assembly of 1879, at Memphis, Tennessee, which for sound sense and a rare combination of unflinching fidelity to his own church, along with the noblest liberality toward others, is deserving of special mention. While he called in question the wisdom of any attempt to unite all Presbyterians in one organic body, and expressed doubts about the utility of such large bodies even were they one in faith, calling them "too unwieldy to be efficient, too proud to be endured," he yet declared it desirable for all Presbyterians to "think less about their differences and more of their vital points of agreement in doctrine and order."

The Assembly of 1880 was held at Evansville, Indiana, and by a sort of averaging of dates it was agreed to celebrate this as its semi-centennial meeting. Our first Assembly was organized in 1829, but there had been two years in which no Assembly met.

This semi-centennial celebration called forth numerous historical addresses. These were published in a neat little pamphlet prepared by the stated clerk, the Hon. John Frizzell.

[457] The Woman's Board of Foreign Missions was organized at this meeting. While there had been suggestions and resolutions looking toward such an organization years before, such propositions had until 1880 ended in words yielding no positive results. Our missionaries in Japan at last kept the subject ringing in the ears of our people, and Dr. W.J. Darby, of Evansville, helped to press the matter until the organization became an accomplished fact. This board was located at Evansville, Indiana. Just as soon as it was organized, a young lady from Missouri offered herself as a missionary to go to Japan, and was accepted. No part of our ecclesiastical machinery works more successfully or yields larger results of good than this board with its numerous auxiliaries and children's bands. Its annual receipts have increased. from a little over $2,000 for the first year, to almost $6,800 for the year ending May, 1887. It has now five missionaries in Japan. It has established a school for the education of Japanese girls. It also assists in mission work in Mexico and among the Indians, and is steadily extending its operations and influence.

The first Cumberland Presbyterian Board of Missions ever organized (1818) was a woman's board, and at different times there were local boards of the same character. One such organization is mentioned in the following letter found in the Watchman and Evangelist, a Cumberland Presbyterian paper published at Louisville, Kentucky, thirty years ago:

Lebanon, Tennessee, November 25, 1857.

MR. EDITOR--I am pleased to read in your paper--nay, the expression does not do justice to my feelings--I am delighted, overjoyed, at the movement of the ladies, members of our church in your city. Indeed, they have set a noble example, which I trust may be followed by the ladies of many other churches. "A female foreign missionary society" according to the plan of that lately formed in Louisville, and for the object there specified, as well as other similar objects which will doubtless be presented, might be formed in every congregation. This would rejoice pious hearts, be approved by the great Head of the church, and, being crowned with the divine blessing, might accomplish results the extent and glory of which eternity alone would reveal. What is more natural than to see the followers of Jesus Christ laboring to advance the great object on which his heart is set? As workers together with him, and loving him who has loved them and saved them [458] from sin and the wrath to come, it is to be expected that they will desire to please him and exert themselves to save those for whom he shed his precious blood. The Savior, it is true, is able to convert the world without human instrumentalities; but it has pleased aim to employ his people in the glorious work. The church is the grand instrument by the labors and sacrifices of which the Son of God is to have the heathen for an inheritance and the uttermost parts of the earth for a possession. F.R. COSSITT.

The custom of organizing and maintaining such societies had fallen into neglect. The Assembly's action in 1880 gave it new form and new life.

Growing out of a resolution presented to the General Assembly of 1880, which was referred to the standing committee on fraternal relations, a correspondence sprung up on the subject of organic union with the Evangelical Lutheran church. Committees were appointed, but they did not meet for a joint conference. The correspondence between the Rev. F. Springer, D.D., chairman of the Lutheran committee, and the Rev. J.P. Sprowls, D.D., chairman of the Cumberland Presbyterian committee, developed the fact that while both churches desired closer and more hearty fraternal relations, neither of them was ready for organic union.(1)

By the Assembly of 1881, which met at Austin, Texas, measures of far-reaching significance were adopted. The constitution of the Presbyterian Alliance was approved, and "our Confession of Faith was submitted as indicating our harmony with the Consensus of the Reformed Confessions." Committees were appointed to revise the Confession of Faith. The Board of Ministerial Relief was organized. The national council of the Cherokee Indians was memorialized to set apart lands for a Cumberland Presbyterian mission school. A memorial page in the Assembly's Minutes was set apart to the memory of Dr. Richard Beard. This was the first time in the history of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church that such a tribute was paid to one of its members. A similar memorial has since been accorded to the Hon.R.L. Caruthers.

The next Assembly, 1882, which met at Huntsville, Alabama, elected delegates to the General Presbyterian Alliance, leaving that [459] council to decide concerning the harmony or want of harmony of the Cumberland Presbyterian creed with the Consensus of the Reformed Confessions. A new committee to cooperate with the colored Cumberland Presbyterians in establishing and endowing a school was appointed.

This Assembly spent most of its sessions in considering the proposed new Confession of Faith, which was submitted to it by the committees appointed the year before. After thoroughly reviewing the work of the committees, and making various changes and amendments, this General Assembly approved the revised book and transmitted it to the presbyteries for their action.

At the Assembly of 1883, held at Nashville, Tennessee, it was announced that one hundred of the one hundred and sixteen presbyteries had approved this revised Confession. In sixty-one presbyteries the vote was unanimous, and in seven there was but one dissenting voice. One presbytery protested against the revision; a majority in nine presbyteries voted against its adoption; three did not report, and three presented memorials suggesting changes or asking postponement. The new "Constitution and Rules of Discipline," and the "General Regulations, Directory for Worship, and Rules of Order" were approved by one hundred and six of the presbyteries. The General Assembly then declared that "the Confession of Faith and Government of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church had been constitutionally changed," and that the revised Confession should thereafter "be of binding authority upon the churches."

In 1883 the Hon. John Frizzell, stated clerk, resigned, and T.C. Blake, D.D., was appointed in his place. The Assembly of 1884 which met at McKeesport, Pennsylvania, chose Mr. Frizzell as its moderator, he being the first ruling elder ever elected to that position.

At the next Assembly, which convened at Bentonville, Arkansas, after the opening sermon, which was preached by J.M. Gill, D.D., Mr. Frizzell, on retiring from the moderator's chair, delivered an address abounding in valuable suggestions about the business affairs of the Assembly. He took strong ground in favor of some provisions for regulating the work of evangelists, condemning all [460] that class of lay evangelism which is under no regular ecclesiastical appointment.

At different times in this periods as well as in former periods, the General Assembly bore strong testimony against card playing, theater going, and dancing. The language of one deliverance on dancing was as follows:

Resolved, by this General Assembly, as expressed by former Assemblies, That the practice of promiscuous dancing as an amusement by professed Christians, as well as attendance upon such places of amusement, is hereby declared to be inconsistent with Christian profession and the pure and sacred obligations of our holy religion; and that presbyteries and church sessions are advised that members persisting in such a practice are proper subjects of church discipline.

The meaning of "promiscuous" dancing was discussed at the time, and was defined to be dancing in which both sexes participate.

In 1874 the Board of Publication bought the Banner of Peace for $10,000, The Cumberland Presbyterian for $13,000, and the Texas Cumberland Presbyterian for $2,500, filling out the unexpired subscriptions of each. The Sunday School Gem and the Theological Medium had been purchased in 1872. All the weekly papers were consolidated under the name of The Cumberland Presbyterian. The consolidated organ was located at Nashville, and the Rev. J.R. Brown, D.D., was appointed editor.

The Board of Ministerial Relief, though not organized until 1881, has done valuable work in providing for the wants of men who have worn their lives out in half-paid labors for the church. The self-sacrificing services of these veteran soldiers of the Cross have been worth a thousand times more than all the pay they ever received or can ever receive from man. This board was located at Evansville, Indiana. The Rev. W.J. Darby, pastor of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in that city, was the prime mover in securing its organization. Articles of corporation were obtained for it in October, 1881. Its receipts during the first year were less than $600. Its total receipts for the year ending May, 1887, were nearly $5,500. It has a permanent fund of $3,500. The number of persons receiving aid has increased from four, who were helped during the first year, to forty-three now on the roll of beneficiaries.

[461] The boards of the church all made good progress in this period. The Board of Publication, through the aid of contributions from the churches, paid off the immense debt created by purchasing papers and periodicals published by individuals, as well as all the debts for presses and fixtures. It also gave, by order of the Assembly, one thousand dollars to meet expenses incurred in connection with the revision of the Confession of Faith.

The new books written and published by ministers or members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in this period are not numerous. The themes of the volumes issued are theological, biographical, educational, and practical. No devotional books have made their appearance. There is a wide gap here for our writers to fill. Tracts that will strengthen and build up church members in Christian life are greatly needed. One little book to guide disciples in the Christian life--"Lights on the Way," by Dr. J.R. Brown--was issued in 1879. The work of publishing Sunday School books has made some little progress. A few religious stories constitute the principal additions. Works to guide the young unto salvation, to train hearts in love to Jesus, to develop the Christian life, to foster faith, and build up souls in real consecration--not works to fascinate by questionable fictions--are what our Sunday Schools need. Such books are likely to find the largest sales. Frances Ridley Havergal's books are an illustration. Of these millions of copies have been sold, and there is no cessation in the demand. At first her publisher protested against the subjects she had chosen, and proposed some world-pleasing substitute, saying that books on the themes she had selected would not be salable. The results show that God still rules. His presence and blessings are with those whose labors are "ever, only, all for Jesus." Let one little book, or tract, or periodical, be so filled with God's truth and God's Spirit that conversions constantly follow its circulation, and no human power can long shut it up within denominational boundaries. To write one such book as "Kept for the Master's Use" is far better than to found an empire, or revolutionize all human sciences.

It remains to speak of the relations of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church to the Presbyterian Alliance. The plan for this [462] "general council of all Presbyterian bodies throughout the world" was formed at the meeting of the Evangelical Alliance in New York city, in 1873. In response to a communication from the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, inviting the Cumberland Presbyterian Church to participate in this "Ecumenical Council of Presbyterians," our Assembly in 1874 appointed "a committee to confer with similar committees from other Presbyterian Assemblies to arrange for such a Council." This committee never reported. In 1875 our Assembly appointed the Rev. W.E. Ward, D.D., to attend the "Presbyterian Alliance to meet in London." At this London conference, which began July 21st, 1875; there were sixty-four commissioners present, representing twenty-two Presbyterian organizations; but as Dr. Ward failed to be present, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church had no representative in this initial meeting, and, therefore, did not become one of the churches originally composing the Alliance. The commissioners in attendance agreed upon a basis of union, and adopted a constitution, designating the body as "The Alliance of the Reformed Churches Throughout the World holding the Presbyterian System," and providing that "Any church organized on Presbyterian principles, which holds the supreme authority of the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments in matters of faith and morals, and whose creed is in harmony with the Consensus of the Reformed Confessions, shall be eligible for admission into the Alliance."

The first regular meeting of the Alliance under this constitution was held in Edinburgh, Scotland, beginning July 4, 1877, but no Cumberland Presbyterian delegates were in attendance. None had been appointed. Our General Assembly in 1880 appointed nine representatives to attend the Alliance's regular meeting, which was to convene at Philadelphia, September 23rd of that year. Only two of these, the Rev. W.H. Black, and Mr. John R. Rush, presented themselves for admission. The Committee on Credentials reported against the admission of the two delegates. The report said:

We are constrained to adopt this resolution by the absence of sufficient evidence that the Cumberland Church now accept the doctrinal basis of the Alliance, and by the terms of Article II. of the Constitution, [463] which restricts the Alliance to churches whose creeds are in harmony with the Consensus of the Reformed Confessions.

No one in the Council seemed to comprehend the importance of this report, when it was first presented by the committee, and it was adopted without discussion; but on the following day the question was re-opened, and led to an exciting debate. One leading member argued that these delegates could not be admitted because the church they represented did not accept the whole of the Westminster Confession. Another argued that because the committees on organic union between Cumberland Presbyterians and Southern Presbyterians had, in their conference at Memphis, in 1867, failed to agree, therefore Cumberland Presbyterians had no right to seats in the Council. But many of the best men in the Alliance, representing both Europe and America, argued in favor of the admission of our delegates. After this matter had been before the Alliance for several days, the following was adopted in lieu of the report of the Committee on Credentials:

Resolved, That the Council are unable, hoc statu, to admit as members brethren representing churches whose relations to the Constitution have not been explained and can not now be considered.

This, as a leading religious paper remarked at the time, kept the delegates out without committing the Alliance permanently to the rejection of the church they represented. In his report to our General Assembly, the Rev. W.H. Black said:

You are already acquainted with the facts concerning the rejection of your delegates, ostensibly, because our Assembly had not taken the necessary regular steps toward admission; but really, as your delegate thinks, because some of the members of the Alliance considered the doctrines of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church out of harmony with the Consensus of the Reformed Confessions.

This matter awakened a lively interest, both in this country and Europe, and was widely discussed by the press. There was, among the more liberal members of the Alliance, much dissatisfaction with the result. The Cumberland Presbyterian General Assembly at its next meeting, in 1881, after formally adopting the Constitution of the Alliance, and submitting our Confession of Faith, "as indicating our harmony with the Consensus of the [464] Reformed Confessions," appointed a committee, "to consider the subject in the light of future developments, and to report to the next Assembly." The report of this committee, which was unanimously adopted by the General Assembly of 1882, stated the particulars(2) in which the founders of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church dissented from the Westminster Confession, and then added:

By these exceptions it will be seen that we have an amended form of the Westminster Confession of Faith, and if this puts us out of harmony with the Consensus of the Reformed Confessions, we will be glad to have the fact clearly and unequivocally stated. That this may be certainly done by the next Council, we recommend that you appoint delegates to the next meeting of the Alliance in the city of Belfast, Ireland, in 1884.

The next year our Assembly adopted an address, submitting to the Alliance "Our Confession of Faith and Government," and saying to that Council: "If the difference between our statements of doctrine and those of the Westminster Confession of Faith is inconsistent with our being represented in your body, you will so decide."

Twenty-five delegates had been appointed to attend the meeting of the Alliance at Belfast, which was to convene June 24th, 1884. Twelve of the number were present at that meeting. The first important item before this Council was the report of a committee appointed four years before to define the Consensus of the Reformed Confessions. This committee announced that, after diligent inquiry, the conclusion had been reached that it was inexpedient to attempt a statement of the creed on which the churches composing the Alliance were united. It had been discovered that the Presbyterian Churches in Continental Europe were not in harmony with the Westminster Confession of Faith in many important particulars, and it was well known that even the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland had found it necessary to adopt an explanatory clause, to which candidates for ordination were required to subscribe, rather than to the simple Confession.

Much interest was felt in the probable result of the application of our delegates for admission. So great was the demand for Cum [465] berland Presbyterian Confessions of Faith, that a Belfast firm printed a new edition of three thousand copies of that book. The Committee on the Reception of Churches was enlarged from three to seventeen members, representing all shades of opinion and all parts of the world. After due deliberation this committee unanimously agreed upon the following report, which was presented to the Council:

Respecting the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, the following deliverance was unanimously adopted:

Whereas, The Cumberland Presbyterian Church has adopted the Constitution of the Alliance;

Whereas, It was one of the churches which was invited to assist in the formation of the Alliance in 1875;

Whereas, It has now, as on previous occasions, made application for admission, and has sent delegates to the present meeting;

Whereas, Further, as declared by the first meeting of the Council, the responsibility of deciding whether they ought to join the Alliance should rest on the churches themselves, your committee recommends to the Council, without pronouncing any judgment on the church's revision of the Westminster Confession and Shorter Catechism, to admit the Cumberland Presbyterian Church into the Alliance, and to invite the delegates now present to take their seats.

The Rev. Dr. Martin, of Kentucky, moved to reject the report, and made a lengthy speech against the reception of our delegates. A heated debate followed which lasted three hours, and in which the representatives from the Southern Presbyterian Church took the lead in opposing the report of the committee. Men representing the best thought in the several churches composing the Alliance, took strong grounds in its favor. Among these were Dr. Briggs and Dr. John Hall, of New York; Professor E.D. Morris, of Cincinnati; Professor Calderwood, of Edinburgh; Principal McVicar, of Montreal; and Dr. Brown and Dr. Story, of Scotland. Dr. Monod, of France, warned the Council that if the Cumberland Presbyterians were rejected the continental churches would feel themselves bound to withdraw from the Alliance.(3) Less than twenty members of the Council voted in favor of Dr. Martin's motion. On motion of the Rev. T.W. Chambers, D.D., of New [466] York, the closing part of Committee's report, was made to read as follows, and with this amendment was adopted:

The Council, without approving of the church's revision of the Westminster Confession and of the Shorter Catechism, admit the Cumberland Presbyterian Church into the Alliance, and invite the delegates now present to take their seats.

Our delegates, in their report to the next Assembly (1885), said:

Dr. Chambers' amendment was carried by a vote of 112 to 78. Those voting against Dr. Chambers' amendment were in favor of admitting our church unconditionally. Those voting for the amendment desired the admission of the church "without approving our revision of the Westminster Confession of Faith." After due deliberation and consultation, we decided to accept seats in the Council and report our action to you. The action of the Council in this matter gave great satisfaction to its members. ... We take special pleasure in bearing testimony to the cordial and hearty reception our delegates received, both from members of the Council and the citizens of Belfast. ... We recommend that you continue to fraternize with this great and powerful organization intended to promote the welfare of our common Presbyterianism.

The General Assembly (1885) adopted the following report on this subject:

Your committee has fully considered the report of your delegates to the Pan-Presbyterian Council, also the official communication from the clerk of the Council, and unanimously recommend that you adopt the following preamble and resolutions:

Whereas, The Council was neither asked nor expected to express approval of our Confession of Faith, but to decide whether it is in harmony with the Consensus of the Reformed churches; and,

Whereas, The Council decided to admit the Cumberland Presbyterian Church to membership in the Alliance, and our delegates to seats in the Council, thereby placing the Alliance upon a basis not inconsistent with our creed; therefore, Resolved,

1.--That this new evidence of a growing catholicity among the members of the great Presbyterian family is hailed with pleasure by this General Assembly representing the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

2.--That we, as a denomination of Christians, continue to fraternize cordially with the liberal and progressive churches composing the Alliance, endeavoring, in the true spirit of unity, with them to promote the gospel's advancement throughout the world.

[467] Although the action by which our church was admitted to membership in the Alliance was not entirely pleasing to all our ministers and people, yet the General Assembly has shown no disposition to recede from the steps it has taken in this matter. In its latest action the Assembly declared that the connection of our church with the Alliance has brought the system of doctrine taught by our people to the attention of the world as never before, and that the Alliance has become a medium of greater fraternity among the churches, drawing them together, promoting a better understanding among the great organizations constituting the Presbyterian family, and promising to become the medium of practical cooperation in foreign mission fields. While it is felt that cooperation is needed, the indications are strong that the churches which most opposed the admission of Cumberland Presbyterians to membership in the Alliance need us more than we need them. The noble words of Dr. E.D. Morris, of Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, uttered in behalf of our people in the Council at Belfast, ought to endear him to all Cumberland Presbyterians forever.

A sad event connected with the journey of the Cumberland Presbyterian delegates to the Belfast Council was the death of the Rev. A.J. Baird, D.D. His health had been failing for several months, but he was unwilling to give up his cherished purpose to attend the Alliance, and he hoped to be benefited by foreign travel. He, however, grew rapidly worse after leaving home, and at New York city, June 15, 1884, the day after his fellow-commissioners sailed, he breathed his last. By his eloquence, his winning personality, and his genial and loving spirit, as well as by his work as a pastor and revival preacher and a writer, he had won a place in the affections of our people which has been attained by few, and his death was mourned as a great loss to the church.

The process of consolidating synods has gone on steadily throughout this period. Presbyteries, also, have in several instances been consolidated. So far as can be learned, the results in all these cases have been favorable. Large bodies are more powerful.

The following new synods have been organized: Ozark (re [468] organized), 1871; Oregon and Kansas, 1875; Missouri Valley, 1877; Trinity, 1878.

The following new presbyteries have appeared in the Assembly's Minutes:

Ozark (reorganized) and Rocky Mountain, 1875; Nolin, Nebraska, and Louisiana, 1873; Hot Springs and Magazine, 1874; Purdy, Republican Valley, and Bosque, 1875; Kirkpatrick and Hill, 1876; Wichita and Graham, 1878; Springville, Albion, Missouri, Burrow, and LaCrosse, 1880; Mayfield and San Saba, 1882; Gregory, 1883; Bonham, Cherokee, and McDonald, 1884; Florida and Buffalo Gap, 1885. Louisiana and McDonald are disbanded presbyteries restored. The dates given are the dates when the first mention of these presbyteries is found in the Minutes of the Assembly.

The following table shows the statistics for different parts of this period:

Year. Ministers. Members. Sunday School Pupils. Contributions.

1871 1,116 96,335 26,466 $136,231

1875 1,232 98,242 44,912 $295,886

1880 1,386 111,863 54,813 $329,418

1886 1,547 138,564 74,576 $553,033

The contributions have increased more than four hundred percent, and the number of Sunday School pupils nearly three hundred per cent. The progress in other things is also encouraging.

The colored Cumberland Presbyterians have made rapid growth in numbers, but their statistics are not included in this table. One thing which has always been characteristic of the growth of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church is that it represents not proselytes from other churches, but souls won from the kingdom of darkness. For the few proselytes coming to us from others we can show a little army of persons who were converted at our meetings, and who afterward joined some other denomination. Such a record is worth more than longer lists of names on the church roll. May God grant us grace in all the coming years to be more in earnest to bring souls to Christ than to build up denominational strength!




While still far behind its duty in missionary work, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church has made great progress therein during the last ten years. Private missions, presbyterial and synodical missions, and itinerant missions under the church board have been numerous, and it is not possible to give even in outline the history of all these.

In city mission work the results during the last fourteen years have been far more encouraging than in any former period. Since 1870 a large proportion of our mission churches in cities and towns have grown strong enough to dispense with the assistance of the board. Among these are two in Saint Louis, one made up of German-speaking and the other of English-speaking Cumberland Presbyterians. The latter, which, to distinguish it from the other, was designated as the "American" mission, has had a remarkable history. The Rev. J.G. White became missionary at Saint Louis, November, 1848, and continued in this work until 1860, when he was succeeded by the Rev. L.C. Ransom. At the beginning of the civil war this mission had a growing congregation and a good house of worship located in a central and desirable part of the city. On the property, valued at $27,000, there was an embarrassing debt of nearly $10,000. Soon after the war commenced the missionary went to Alabama, and the little flock became shepherdless. The regular services were suspended, and the building was finally sold to meet the claims of creditors.

Though the fruit of the toil and sacrifice of more than fifteen years was thus lost, efforts to revive the work were not given up. In the Assembly of 1865 the Committee on Missions recommended [470] Saint Louis as an important mission field, and stated that the congregation then had "an opportunity to purchase a comfortable and well-situated house of worship at reasonable rates." The next year the Board of Missions, at Alton, Illinois, reported that the Rev. F.M. Gilliam had been appointed to take charge of the Saint Louis work, and that a plan for raising money by a joint stock company to purchase a house and lot had been adopted and was succeeding admirably. The missionary had been in the field as soliciting agent, and had secured subscriptions enough to pay for this property. He, however, for some reason not stated in the Minutes, resigned in October, 1866.

About this time the board adopted a new, and what proved to be an unfortunate measure. A congregation known as the "First Independent Church of Saint Louis," which had grown out of a mission Sunday School, had a large and expensive house of worship in process of erection. Eight thousand dollars was needed to complete this building, and there was a debt of fifteen thousand dollars on it. The members of this church proposed to become Cumberland Presbyterians, and to convey this property to our mission, on condition that the board would assume the debt. This proposition was accepted, and the property already owned by the mission, as well as this new property, was mortgaged in order to borrow $20,000 to meet the pressing claims of the creditors of the Independent church, and to advance the work on the new building. December 12th, 1866, the Rev. J.H. Coulter, whose ministerial services had been temporarily secured by the mission, perfected the organization of the Cumberland Presbyterian congregation, and the formal union with the Independent congregation was effected February 17, 1867. The consolidated church then numbered one hundred and fifteen members. The property acquired by the Cumberland Presbyterian mission before forming this union was sold, and the proceeds used in prosecuting the work on the new building. The basement was finished October, 1867, but to secure this result two thousand dollars more had been borrowed. Though the property was valued at forty-six thousand dollars, the debts began to be pressing. The Rev. F.M. Gilliam, who had for a time resumed the charge of the work, had again resigned, and the Rev. [471] William S. Langdon had been appointed temporarily as missionary. In 1869 the board reported unforeseen reverses. The payments of interest due had not been met by the board, and a large portion of those who had composed the Independent church had seceded and taken possession of the property. When the Assembly of 1870 met, the "Independent" faction still held the building. To the Assembly of 1872 the board reported that all honorable means to get possession of the property or "to get back the money we had invested over and above the debts of the property," had been in vain. That portion of the congregation which had seceded had taken refuge in the Presbyterian Church, and under the sanction of the Saint Louis Presbytery captured the house. Both this presbytery and the congregation which held the property acknowledged their moral obligation to repay the money our people had invested; but they not only failed to meet this obligation, but thwarted all the board's efforts to re-imburse itself.

Abandoning all hope of success in this quarter, the board resolved to begin a new work in another part of the city. Efforts were set on foot to secure ten thousand dollars to buy a lot and build a chapel. In May, 18731 the Rev. E.J. Gillespie was already soliciting funds for this purpose. In the summer of 1874 the board resolved to prosecute this work with renewed vigor, but "with no hope of success in a day or a year." The Rev. C.H. Bell, D.D., was chosen to take charge of the work. Before the meeting of the Assembly of 1875, ten thousand dollars in notes and pledges had been secured. Dr. Bell and others diligently prosecuted the work of raising money; and the board, made wiser by its past experiments, promised "to take no step until it had the money to pay for what was done." Through these years the missionary, "when not engaged in soliciting funds, devoted his attention to looking up members and others in sympathy with the church, and to conducting services in various parts of the city." The congregation was organized, and took possession of its new chapel December 1, 1877. In May, 1879, this church had fifty-three in communion; and during the year ending with May, 1880, it not only paid its incidental expenses, but contributed nearly three hundred and fifty dollars toward the missionary's salary. At [472] the close of 1880 Dr. Bell asked leave to retire from the work. His resignation took effect January 31, 1881, and the Rev. W.H. Black succeeded him immediately. This church became self-supporting January 1, 1882, and has since grown steadily in numbers and influence. The Rev. W.H. Black is still its pastor (1887).

The lessons learned in connection with this Saint Louis work and from similar efforts elsewhere have borne good fruit. Successful mission churches have grown up in a number of cities and towns, and the missionary work of the church has prospered as never before. Among the city missions that have grown into successful churches during this period are one at Little Rock, Arkansas, one at Kansas City, Missouri, one at Sedalia, Missouri, and one at Logansport, Indiana.

The Little Rock mission became self-supporting in 1875. Of this mission the board, in its report to the Assembly of 1876, said:

The work at this place has made most gratifying progress spiritually, and also financially, so that it has become self-sustaining as to the pastor's support. ... The fruits which have rapidly attended this work, undertaken only a few years ago, are most encouraging. and are in large part, under God, due to the zeal and judgment of S.H. Buchanan, D.D., the pastor.

Dr. Buchanan is still pastor of this church.

To the General Assembly of 1870 the Kansas City mission was reported as a new enterprise but lately received under the care of the board. Through the efforts of Lexington Presbytery, a neat and comfortable house of worship had been erected. The Rev. J.E. Sharp was missionary, and through his efficient labors, supported by contributions from the presbytery, the foundations of our church here were securely laid. He resigned in the fall of 1874. Afterward the Rev. C.P. Duvall for a time had charge of this mission. The Rev. B.P. Fullerton was called to this field in 1879, entering upon the work October 1st. He is still the pastor in charge. The church was declared self-sustaining October 8, 1883. A new and commodious house of worship was dedicated the day before. The work of this church continues to be greatly blessed. From the beginning this mission was under the direct care and support of the Lexington Presbytery.

[473] The Rev. A.H. Stephens became missionary at Sedalia, Missouri, June 1, 1881. Efforts to establish a Cumberland Presbyterian Church in this growing city had been begun several years before. With a view of building a house of worship, a small sum of money had been raised, and was in the hands of a committee appointed by New Lebanon Presbytery; but prior to 1878 all efforts to build up a congregation had failed. In September of that year the Rev. J.T.A. Henderson, then of Knobnoster, Missouri, began to preach twice a month in this city without any appointment from the board or the presbytery, and at his own charges. He continued these services regularly for about two years, his compensation being less than his traveling expenses. During the years 1879 and 1880 a small frame church costing $2,500 was erected with money collected by New Lebanon Presbytery. The work, though under the charge of the Board of Missions after 1881, was sustained by the contributions of this presbytery. This congregation became self-supporting November 29, 1885, at which time it dedicated a new and elegant church edifice. In May, 1886, it reported a membership of one hundred and thirteen, and has since steadily grown in numbers and usefulness under the efficient pastorate of Mr. Stephens. The General Assembly of 1886 was held at Sedalia.

In the fall of 1875 the Board of Missions, at the earnest solicitation of ministers and members of the church in Indiana, and after due investigation, resolved to plant a mission in Logansport, and appointed the Rev. A.W. Hawkins missionary. He took charge of the work November 1, 1875. Twelve or fourteen persons who had once been Cumberland Presbyterians were found in or near the city. A hall was rented and regular services held. Of his work at this time the missionary says: "I made my sermons in the early part of the week, and in the latter part of the week I went out and made a congregation to hear them." In May, 1876, a church with thirty-five members was organized. In 1877 a lot with a dwelling-house on it was purchased, and a comfortable church was built and dedicated. All the money used in erecting this building, except fifteen dollars sent from Pennsylvania, was raised at Logansport by the missionary, who though "cramped by [474] a support far too meager," continued to be "patient, persevering, and successful."(4) In February, 1885, he handed in his resignation, but continued in charge of the work until the 8th of the following April, at which time he was succeeded by the Rev. James Best, who continues to labor successfully in this field. This church was declared self-sustaining Sunday, May 9, 1886.

At the beginning of the war there was at Chattanooga, Tennessee, a flourishing Cumberland Presbyterian mission. In 1860 this congregation reported ninety in membership, and it had "a neat brick edifice, well located, and almost entirely paid for." The Rev. A. Templeton was missionary, and his work here had been most successful; but during the great civil conflict the members were scattered and the house greatly damaged. The work was resumed after the war closed, and in 1868 the little church had thirty members, and regular services were kept up. Rev. N.W. Motheral was then the missionary in charge, but for some reason he did not long continue in the work, and for several years the congregation was most of the time without a pastor. Then Rev. W.D. Chadick became missionary, and under his wise and energetic administration the congregation made gratifying progress for three or four years. By reason of failing health he gave up the work in December, 1877. Then after another period of change and uncertainty the Rev. W.H. Darnall, D.D., was appointed to take charge of this mission, and under his labors, which continued from March, 1880, to the fall of 1882, the work was again prosperous. After his retirement this church seems to have passed from under the care of the board, and was again much of the time without a pastor until April, 1885, when the Rev. E.J. McCrosky entered upon his successful labors in this field. During the time he had charge of the work a commodious and beautiful church was erected, and the congregation entered upon a new career of growth and usefulness. He resigned July 15, 1887.

Many other mission churches not less deserving of mention than those whose work has been thus briefly sketched have, during this period, grown into self-support and extended usefulness. Those described are but selections illustrating the character of our [475] home mission work. In the wide field extending from Pennsylvania to California, and from Iowa to Texas, scores of similar missions have flourished, not only in towns and villages but in country places; not only under the supervision of the Board of Missions, but under the direction of synods or presbyteries, or of single congregations, or through the liberality or self-sacrifice of individual church members or ministers.

The following is a list of some of the important and growing mission churches now under the care of the board, with the names of the missionaries: Allegheny, Pennsylvania, the Rev. J.H. Barnett; Louisville, Kentucky, the Rev. B.D. Cockrill; Knoxville, Tennessee, the Rev. J.V. Stephens; Birmingham, Alabama, the Rev. F.J. Tyler; Saint Joseph, Missouri, the Rev. Alonzo Pearson; Springfield, Illinois, the Rev. S. Richards, D.D.; Fort Scott, Kansas, the Rev. S.A. Sadler; Garden City, Kansas, the Rev. J.R. Lowrance; Fort Smith, Arkansas, the Rev. S.H. McElvain; San Antonio, Texas, the Rev. W.B. Preston; Stockton, California, the Rev. T.A. Cowan; Meridian, Mississippi, the Rev. R.A. Cody; Walla Walla, Washington Territory, the Rev. W.W. Beck. Of these missions, and others under the care of the board, Dr. Bell says, in a recent address:(5)

Some of these are nearly self-supporting, having good property unincumbered; others have suitable buildings, and the work of gathering congregations is in progress; while some are earnestly seeking funds for the purchase of church homes preparatory to the commencement of preaching services. Never were the prospects so encouraging for obtaining denominational footing in centers of moral and commercial influence.

Much of this increased success in missionary work has been due to the prudence and efficiency of those who have administered the affairs of the board. At the beginning of this period the work was under the immediate supervision of the Rev. R.S. Reed, secretary. He died early in the summer of 1871, and was succeeded by the Rev. J.B. Logan, D.D., who was for two years general superintendent and corresponding secretary. After this, beginning [476] May 1, 1874, the Rev. E.B. Crisman, D.D., became superintendent and corresponding secretary, and the almost seven years during which he held this office were a period of increasing success in every department of mission work. Since February, 1881, the Rev. C.H. Bell, D.D., president of the board, has devoted his whole attention to the general management of missions, and in these years this cause has flourished as never before.

In no other country on earth is the home missionary work so important as it is in the United States. New States are springing up, new populations are gathering. Vast communities are taking shape and setting into their final type so rapidly that it requires constant reading to keep up with their progress. The opportunity now open to home missions will never return. This is pre-eminently true in regard to the home mission work of Cumberland Presbyterians. We can not shift the responsibility. We stand nearest of all to these new States. The center of our strength and influence is in the West. Our own sons are among the pioneers who are pressing into these new fields. If we fall behind, and leave these rapidly-growing communities to be evangelized by other churches, we must forever stand charged with being false to our own children and our own King.

Cumberland Presbyterians have missions among the Chickasaw, the Choctaw, and the Cherokee Indians. There are two growing Presbyteries in this field. Bethel Presbytery has eleven ordained ministers, and ten probationers. All but two of these are natives, and the work in that field is now mainly done by native preachers. This presbytery embraces the country of the Chickasaws and Choctaws, and it has thirty-one congregations and five hundred and forty communicants. These two Nations are closely united, and form one missionary field. The churches in this presbytery are now nearly all self-sustaining. Leading men among the Indians are active members of our church, and attend our General Assemblies as delegates. One of the most interesting features of the Assembly of 1878 was the presence of Judge Chico as a representative from Bethel Presbytery. Our work among the Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians began in 1819, and has been kept up in some form ever since. The Rev. Calvin Robinson, a native, [477] the Rev. J.H. Dickerson, and the Rev. J.J. Smith are now our missionaries in Bethel Presbytery. All three are consecrated and successful workers.

Although zealous Cumberland Presbyterian preachers have often visited the Cherokees and held meetings, yet it was but recently that the board sent permanent missionaries to that field. The first of these was the Rev. N.J. Crawford, in whose veins there is some Indian blood. He determined in 1876 to cast his lot among the Cherokees. More than four hundred conversions were reported as the result of his meetings prior to 1885.

There are curious items about some of our missionaries in that field. The Rev. David Hogan had been preaching fifty years before he determined to become a missionary. He has preached along with Finis Ewing in other days. With his own hands he closed Finis Ewing's eyes when that hero of the Cross fell asleep in Jesus.(6) A most interesting thing it is to hear Hogan talk of his early experiences. He says: "My church is better known and held in higher esteem in heaven than it is on earth." When he was seventy-one years old he said to the Board of Missions: "If you will commission me as missionary to the Cherokee Indians, without salary, I will spend the rest of my days preaching to that people." The commission was given him, and now for more than three years he has been laboring in this mission field.

The first Cumberland Presbyterian Church among the Cherokees was organized by N.J. Crawford in 1877. It is in the eastern part of the Cherokee country, and is known as the Prairie Grove congregation. There was a great revival among the Cherokees in 1880 and 1881.

In 1874 a Cherokee boy came to Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee, to prepare for the ministry. He was graduated in 1879, and is now in his native land preaching Jesus. His name is R.C. Parks. His churches now number over a hundred members.

The Cherokee Presbytery was organized in February, 1884, at the residence of the Rev. R.C. Parks, Canadian District, Indian Territory. N.J. Crawford, David Hogan, and R.C. Parks were the original members. J.H. Kelley, licentiate, placed himself [478] under the care of the presbytery at its organization. This presbytery now has five ordained ministers, two probationers, and seven congregations, with nine out-stations. The aggregate number of communicants is four hundred and fifty.

One of the schools in the Cherokee country is partially under the care of our Woman's Board of Missions--that is, this board has been giving it assistance. This school is known as Hogan Institute. Our native members and preachers have also aided in various other schools among the Cherokees. An item of interest connected with this presbytery is that a consecrated Christian young lady, Miss Bell Cobb, is its stated clerk. In the manuscript history of this presbytery, prepared by this lady, the work of N.J. Crawford, R.C. Parks, J.H. Kelley, David Hogan, Laman Carter, and J.H. Pigman is described with a fullness of detail which can not be repeated here. This interesting narrative closes with some statements which are brief enough to be quoted:

In May, 1886, the Rev. Joseph Smallwood, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, a full blood Cherokee Indian, was, by a commission appointed by the presbytery, received as a minister in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. All the ministers in this presbytery are now in the field and identified with the Cherokee people, and, under God, and by the help of his Holy Spirit, intend to maintain and advance the church's work among them. The Board of Missions has three missionaries in the Cherokee Nation: the Rev. N.J. Crawford, with a salary of $25 per month; the Rev. R.C. Parks, with a salary of $8.33 per month; and the Rev. David Hogan, without a salary. The presbytery has one missionary in the field, the Rev. Joseph Smallwood, with a salary of $12.50 per month.

Special mention must here be made of the Rev. B.F. Totten, of Arkansas Presbytery, who aided the Rev. N.J. Crawford in revival meetings in 1880-81; of the Rev. E.E. Baily, of Pennsylvania, who, at his own expense, labored through several revival seasons, not only among the Cherokee, but other tribes as well; of the Rev. E.M. Roach, of Arkansas Presbytery, who labored three months with the Rev. R.C. Parks and the Rev. N.J. Crawford in the summer and fall of 1885, being employed and sent by the Woman s Home Missionary Society of Boonsboro, Arkansas. We are, also, under many obligations to the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, Evansville, Indiana, for five hundred dollars kindly sent us in October, 1885, for the purposes of church extension.

[479] We predict a bright future for the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in the Cherokee Nation. The intelligence of the people, the self-sacrifice of the ministry, and the leadings of the Holy Spirit all point to the success of the church and the glorification of God in the salvation of this people.

After the Board of Missions recalled the Rev. Edmond Weir from Liberia in 1868, and until it appointed the Rev. S.T. Anderson, D.D., to go to the Island of Trinidad in 1873, it had no foreign mission under its care, unless we except the work among the American Indians. The records during these years show that our people felt dissatisfied with this state of things.

In 1870 the board declared that the time had come when the Assembly should at least "begin to lay plans and devise means for active efforts in re-occupying the foreign field," and the General Assembly of that year adopted a report which, after calling attention to the opportunities for mission work in Mexico and in the South American States, said, "The foreign field is open to us: so far as God enables us we should occupy it."

In 1871 the declarations of the General Assembly indicate that there was in the minds of our people increasing interest in regard to the foreign work. The board was instructed to ascertain if possible the best method of entering upon this work, and was directed to raise funds for this purpose.

During the year following the board corresponded with persons in different parts of the world in order to elicit information to guide them in selecting a mission field. Among those who were thus written to was Dr. S. Irenaus Prime, of New York, who recommended Japan as the heathen country "most accessible and least occupied by Christian Churches," and whose, people in spite of "the strange and seemingly paradoxical position of the Japan government against Christianity," were eager to hear the gospel.

The board had also received communications from N.H. McGhirk, M.D., urging the claims of the Island of Trinidad in the West Indies. He was a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church who had moved from Missouri to that island. He said that country, while nominally Catholic was really heathen, and urged the board to send one or two missionaries thither.

[480] A memorial came from Pennsylvania Synod entreating the Assembly of 1872 to move at once in the work of foreign missions. This synod had already made arrangements by which it was to send the Rev. M.L. Gordon to Japan through the American Board. Increased contributions for the foreign work showed a growing interest in this subject throughout the church. In their report to this Assembly the board expressed their unanimous judgment, "after much reflection on the subject," that union with the American Board in the prosecution of mission work was not advisable on account of the great dissimilarity of doctrinal views between Cumberland Presbyterians and those represented by that board; adding that those united in the work through the American Board had "ever been regarded as strictly Calvinistic, while the very existence of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church is a protest against the radical features of Calvinism."

To the Assembly of 1873 it was announced that the Island of Trinidad and the capital of Venezuela, South America, had been selected as the mission fields most easily accessible and promising the quickest and surest results of good. One chief reason which influenced the board in making this choice was the expectation of coming into possession of an immense tract of land in Venezuela. This was part of a still larger tract which had been granted by the government of Venezuela to a company of which Dr. N.H. McGhirk was a member. This company had re-granted eight hundred square miles of their prospective domain to nine trustees for the use and benefit of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church for the purpose of establishing and carrying on mission work in that country.(7)

The Rev. S.T. Anderson, D.D., was appointed missionary in November, 1873, and he proceeded at once to the Island of Trinidad. Dr. McGhirk was also appointed as a lay helper. Dr. Anderson soon after his arrival accepted an invitation to supply a vacant Presbyterian mission church in the city of San Fernando This congregation was under the care of the Free Church of Scotland. It gave Dr. Anderson ten dollars a week for his services and allowed him the free use of the manse, agreeing to continue this arrangement until the Free Church should send a man to fill the [481] vacancy. This gave our missionary a home and work at once, but, as it also gave him the largest part of his support, the liberality of the church at home was not developed by this mission as it might otherwise have been. Though there were several thousands of Hindus and Chinese on the Island of Trinidad and sixty or seventy thousand negroes, besides many Spaniards, Portuguese, French, English, and a few Americans, our missionaries and the board regarded this island as but the starting point of their work. They believed Venezuela, among whose two millions of people there was not one Protestant missionary, to be the great mission field for our people.

During the year preceding the General Assembly of 1875 arrangements were made by which Dr. Anderson became agent of the American Bible Society for the distribution of the Scriptures. Dr. McGhirk expected to move to the Continent and thus the work was to be extended to Venezuela. The board had been making diligent inquiry about the half million of acres of Venezuelan land which had been granted to the church, and trying to perfect the title. But any expectations which may have been cherished of securing from this source the means of enlarging the mission work of the church failed to be realized. Though the board in 1876 expressed the opinion that this claim would "some day be valuable," yet neither the church nor the cause of missions has ever received any benefit from it. Missions have seldom been effectively helped by grants of land or princely endowments from States or governments. The preaching of the gospel among the heathen, as well as at home, must be sustained by the self-sacrificing efforts and direct gifts of consecrated Christians.

In 1876 the board reported that the work in Trinidad and Venezuela had not been prosecuted as intended when the mission was undertaken. The reason assigned was that it had been found impossible "to raise the means necessary to send two other men to accompany Dr. Anderson to Venezuela, which was the plan on which the work was begun." After laboring and waiting more than two years Dr. Anderson wrote to the board expressing a desire to return to the United States unless the needed reinforcements could at once be sent, He stated also that the condition of his own [482] health and that of his wife, as well as the necessity of educating his children made it his duty to return. At his own request his appointment as missionary expired with May, 1876. He returned to the United States, and the Trinidad and Venezuela mission was abandoned.

But the growing missionary spirit of the church was not checked by this discouraging failure. In answer to a paper presented to the Assembly of 1876, "recommending the cessation of all work in the foreign field," that body declared that the adoption of such a resolution would be "unwise and attended with dangerous consequences," and that "we ought not to grieve the Spirit's yearnings for foreign lands." The Rev. J.B. Hail and the Rev. A.D. Hail had already been accepted "as candidates" for the foreign field, and were preparing to enter the work, though it had not yet been decided into what part of the heathen world they were to be sent.

No series of events in the history of the church bears more distinctly the marks of God's providential hand than that connected with the origin and progress of our denominational work in Japan. The seed was sown nearly thirty years before by a dying mother's prayer. It grew in the heart of one young man until other hearts received it, and until a whole church was awakened and blessed by it. The mother of M.L. Gordon died in Greene county, Pennsylvania, when her son was yet an infant. On her death bed she consecrated this boy to the work of foreign missions. We do not know how often through the years of his youth thoughts of this work were awakened in his mind. At the breaking out of the war he enlisted in a Pennsylvania regiment and served three years. He was converted near the close of his term of enlistment on Morris Island, South Carolina, during the siege, under General Gilmore, of the fortifications in the neighborhood of Charleston. In the autumn of 1864 he entered Waynesburg College, Pennsylvania, but afterward gave up his collegiate studies for a time and began the study of medicine. But his impressions that he ought to devote himself to the work of the ministry became so intense that he closed his medical books and returned to college determined to prepare himself to preach the gospel. He had in 1865 joined the Cumber [483] land Presbyterian Church, and in 1868 he became a candidate for the ministry in Pennsylvania Presbytery. After his graduation from Waynesburg College, and while he was in the Theological Seminary at Andover, Massachusetts, he decided to enter the foreign field. His mother's prayers were at last ready to ripen into fruit.

The following extract from the Minutes of the General Assembly of 1871 show that he was in correspondence with the Cumberland Presbyterian Board of Missions in reference to the foreign work:

A young brother of the Synod of Pennsylvania is consecrating him. self to this work, and is now offering himself to the board and asks to be sent to bear the glad tidings of salvation to poor dying sinners in heathen lands, but owing to our want of means we are not prepared to recommend such decided action on this subject as we would otherwise be pleased to do.(8)

The Pennsylvania Synod, which urged the appointment of Gordon by the board, pledged its members to sustain him with their means and their influence.(9) Without changing his ecclesiastical relations, he was finally commissioned to the work in Japan by the American Board. He received his ordination from the Pennsylvania Presbytery August 6, 1872. The Pennsylvania Synod stood pledged to contribute to his support, and did for six or seven years pay into the treasury of the American Board a sum averaging more than $700 per annum. He and his wife sailed to Japan September 1st, 1872, arriving at Yokohama the 24th of the same month. His going attracted the eyes of the whole church to that field, and marked the way for the missionaries who were sent by our board to the same country more than four years afterward. God has used him as an honored instrument in helping the work, not only of the board that sent him, but also of the church of which he is so worthy a minister. When our own missionaries arrived in Japan he was there in a successful mission. He was an old acquaintance and friend of the Hail brothers, and gave them all the counsel and assistance in his power. Did the limits of this volume permit it would be a pleasant task to take up Dr. Gordon's own labors and their results in detail, nor would such [484] a history be unprofitable or uninteresting to Cumberland Presbyterians. After nearly five years spent in general missionary work in the city of Osaka, during which he suffered greatly from an affection of the eyes, he and family returned to America in the summer of 1877. They went out again the next year, sailing October 1st in the same vessel that bore A.D. Hail and family to Japan. Dr. Gordon has since labored most of the time in connection with a training school at Kyoto. In December, 1885, he was compelled by failing health to return a second time to the United States. After spending more than a year in this country, most of the time in California, he again sailed for Japan August 23, 1887. Speaking in a late letter of his work in its relations to the Cumberland Presbyterian Church he says with characteristic modesty: "I sometimes think that while my going as I did may have been helpful in arousing the board and church to action, and so divinely ordered, yet when an independent mission was to be established that work was in the same divinely wise way given to other and better hands."

The brothers A.D. Hail and J.B. Hail, whose mother is a daughter of Alexander Chapman of precious memory, were fellow-students of Gordon, at Waynesburg College.A.D. Hail was graduated from this institution in 1866, and his younger brother, J.B. Hail, three years later. Both resolved to consecrate themselves as foreign missionaries. We do not know how much Gordon's example did toward turning their thoughts in this direction. God often touches our hearts through the silent influence of our friends, or by their words or actions. An example of consecration and of faithful service can hardly fail to prove God's call beckoning others to similar self-denial and faithfulness. Consciously or unconsciously every life is influenced and molded by other lives. When Gordon gave himself to the foreign work his fellow-students and fellow-candidates for the ministry could hardly fail to feel the influence of his example.

These two brothers began to look about them for an opportunity to enter the work to which they felt that they were called. The prospects of being sent to any part of the foreign field by the Cumberland Presbyterian Board of Missions were at that time very [485] discouraging. Therefore, J.B. Hail wrote to E.B. Treat, corresponding secretary of the American Board, asking an appointment to the foreign field as a Cumberland Presbyterian missionary. In his reply the secretary, after inquiring what he was to understand by an appointment as a "Cumberland Presbyterian missionary, " discouraged the application on account of the limited financial resources then at the board's command. The younger Hail then offered himself to our own board. This was early in the year 1875. His brother made a like offer of himself to the Cumberland Presbyterian board in November of the same year. Both were accepted as candidates.

In 1876 Pennsylvania Synod, of which J.B. Hail was a member, pledged $1,000 for his outfit and $300 a year on his salary, on condition that the board would at once send him to Japan. This offer was accepted, and he and his family sailed from San Francisco about the first of January, 1877, reaching Osaka the 30th of that month. There were then not more than fifty native Christians in that great city. But three Protestant churches were represented in mission work: the Congregationalists, through the American Board; and the Episcopalians, English and American. Our missionary and his wife devoted themselves at once to the study of the language and the people, "sometimes exchanging instruction in English for instruction in Japanese."(10) They found a home in that part of the city allotted to foreigners, and known as the Foreign Concession.

There was no money in our missionary treasury, and A.D. Hail, who had for some years been pastor at Cumberland, Ohio, had to wait. At the board's request he studied medicine, attending Cleveland Medical College in 1876 and 1877. A gentleman in Illinois, early in 1878 offered the board $1,000 for Mr. Hail's outfit. At the meeting of the General Assembly at Lebanon, Tennessee, in May of that year, he was solemnly ordained to this work, and he and his family sailed from San Francisco the following autumn reaching Japan October 21st. Up to this time but one inquirer, a man named Yamamoto San, had placed himself under the instruction of our missionaries. When J.B. Hail acquired a sufficient knowledge of Japanese to begin to preach, efforts were made to find See historical sketch of our Japan Mission in [486] a place in the city in which to hold services. But there was such a prejudice against Christianity that it was almost three months before a preaching place was found. At last a building on Ruhebashi street was rented and "the first sermon was preached on Sabbath, February 9th, 1879, at 4 P.M., almost the exact time of the sixty-ninth anniversary of our denomination."

There was much interest in the services from the first. In his report to the General Assembly of 1879, A.D. Hail, speaking of these first meetings, says:

It is a matter of profound interest to witness the attention paid by some of the hearers, and to see others dropping into the passage-way as they are passing, and standing with great burdens of wares upon their backs, and greater burdens upon their hearts, turning their bronzed faces toward the speaker to catch his words. At such times one feels an inexpressible longing for a thorough knowledge of the tongue through which so many deaf hearts must be reached.

The missionaries found that until they became accustomed to the climate they could not work so well as at home. Three years' study of the language was required in order to begin responsible work. They were hindered by the restrictions of the government, and by the circulation of infidel books from Europe and America, as well as by the difficulty of expressing spiritual ideas in the Japanese tongue, and the degrading effects wrought on the people by heathenism. But the Christian homes of the missionaries were already exerting an influence for good. Schools were springing up and the children were receiving instruction in anti-heathen knowledge. Persecutions had measurably ceased. The reading habits of the people and their eagerness to learn afforded constant opportunities to impart the gospel, while the number of native believers and Christian Churches was rapidly multiplying.

A Sunday School, with an average attendance of fifteen, was organized by our missionaries November 2nd, 1879, and a weekly prayer-meeting was regularly maintained, out of which grew a weekly meeting for inquirers. Two native helpers, Obato San and Suji San, were assisting in the work, teaching, exhorting, and aiding in pastoral visitation.

Though there were in 1879 a small number of inquirers, one or [487] two of whom the missionaries thought they might "justifiably encourage to become candidates for baptism," yet it was thought "better to err on the side of caution than of haste amongst those having such low ideas of the Christian life."(11) It was not until September 26th, 1880, that the first converts of the mission were baptized. On that day two men, Yamamoto San and Kuzze San, received this ordinance at the hands of the Rev. J.B. Hail, and joined the missionaries in the first communion service of this infant church in the city of Osaka. Of these two men the Rev. G.G. Hudson says in his late report as corresponding secretary of the mission:(12)

These were the first fruits of our mission in Japan. Without special direction from their teachers these men consulted together, and agreeing that as they were the first members of this new church, their conduct would have great influence with those who should join later, they sought help from God to fit themselves for their responsible position, and promised on their part to have a stated time for secret prayer, and to give to the Lord one tenth of their income. Having such a foundation, we may hope that "all the building, fitly framed together, shall grow unto an holy temple in the Lord."

Though the missionaries felt the importance of extending the work to points outside of Osaka, and tours of observation were made to Wakayama, Tanabe, and other important places, the want of men and women to aid in the work prevented them at that time from occupying these inviting fields.

In the meantime the mission was bearing fruit in the church at home. Missionary contributions were greatly increased. The organization of the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions grew directly out of the pressing necessities of this work in Japan. The missionaries made their first official report in 1879. In it they said:

As the work progresses we feel the indispensable need of female helpers. If one was on the ground now and had a thorough knowledge of the tongue she would prove an invaluable adjunct to the preaching place that is now opened. ... While the labors of the wives of the missionaries are manifold, yet there is a large field that can be successfully worked only by young lady helpers. ... The work accomplished by the young ladies of other denominations has been very [488] great. No denomination can wholly succeed without them. ... The time has come in the providence of God when he is opening a great door of usefulness to our Christian women.

In the same report it was suggested that "our board and General Assembly call on the ladies of the church to organize themselves for work," and it was urged that if possible at least one young lady should be sent to Japan the following autumn. But as this suggestion was not, that year, carried out, A.D. Hail and his wife, early in 1880, wrote a letter to the ladies of our church at Evansville, Indiana, through their pastor, the Rev. W.J. Darby, requesting, inasmuch as the General Assembly was to meet in that city in May of that year, that these ladies would call a convention of the women of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church to meet there at the time of the Assembly's meeting for the purpose of organizing a Woman's Board of Missions. The call was issued and the matter was pressed by the pastor at Evansville and the ladies of his church. The convention was held, and with the unanimous approval of the General Assembly the Woman's Board was organized and located at Evansville.

In 1881 our missionaries began to make extended preaching tours in the country south of Osaka, and the work was thus enlarged. An extract from the report written March 15th, 1881, will show what were at that time the arduous duties of the missionaries:

The work presses upon us so that every member of the mission must labor so constantly as to call for continual care against overwork. In addition to the regular day's work on the language, there are the usual labors of preaching, teaching, and superintending. During the present year prayer-meetings have been maintained Tuesday and Thursday evenings. ... The average attendance has been larger than it was last year. ... The wives of the missionaries have also begun a woman's prayer-meeting, which is held on Wednesday evening. ... Every morning also, at the hour of family worship, which is arranged with that end in view, there is generally a half hour devoted to exegesis which is shared by several of the Japanese. Every evening of the week also has been devoted to teaching a few young men English and science, for the sake of gaining an influence over them, and reaching them with the gospel of Christ. One of the young men thus taught continues to open his house every Sabbath morning for Bible study.

[489] The Sabbath services, preaching and Sunday School, were kept up with growing interest at the regular preaching place; and an afternoon Sunday School was opened in another part of the city, where a preaching service was held every Sabbath at 4 P.M.; and Sabbath evening services were held in still another place. Mainly through native helpers the work had begun to extend outside the city. Services were kept up once a month at a mountain village twelve miles from Osaka; and the influence of the mission was gradually finding its way to other places. Three extensive tours into the Province of Kishu were this year made "with the purpose of ascertaining the feasibility of making it an out-station," but in all these efforts the mission was crippled by the lack of an adequate force of men and women, and the want of means to prosecute the work.

The need of a religious, and especially of a denominational, literature in the native language was at an early period recognized. When the entire New Testament was translated and printed, the work of imparting a knowledge of the gospel was made much less difficult. The Scriptures were sold everywhere, in shops, on the streets, at Christian meetings, and at heathen festivals. It was no unusual thing "to see men with a copy of the gospels in one hand, and the image of a fox or of Buddha in the other, returning from their religious gatherings." In some cases those whose only teacher had been the printed word presented themselves for baptism.

In 1881 a beginning in the matter of denominational literature was made. The Confession of Faith was translated by J.B. Hail, who also translated the chapter of Dr. J.R. Brown's "Lights on the Way," entitled "The Doctrines." A.D. Hail translated the Shorter Catechism and the Catechism for Children. He also wrote an expository tract on Luke 15, entitled "The Sinner's Staff," and a Manual of Systematic Theology. The mission that year issued two hundred and sixty thousand pages of printed matter. Some other translations and original works have since been published, but efforts in this department have been much hindered by other pressing demands on the time and energies of the missionaries, as well as by the lack of an adequate fund to be used in the publication of books.

[490] A religious book and tract store was opened early in 1881. While much religious reading matter was distributed gratuitously, the missionaries believed that more good would be accomplished by cheap sales than by the indiscriminate giving away of books and tracts. In the succeeding years book depositories have been established in many places, and colporteurs have been sent forth. This work is placed in the hands of native Christians, who combine its duties with evangelistic labors.

November 21, 1881, Miss Alice M. Orr, of Missouri, and Miss Julia L. Leavitt, of Indiana, the first two missionaries sent out by the Woman's Board, arrived at Osaka. Though they were able immediately to relieve their fellow-missionaries of part of their English teaching work, and as time went on to assist to some extent in imparting instruction in music, sacred geography, and some other branches, yet their time for the first three years was mainly devoted to the study of the language.

A preaching place was opened October 1, 1881, in a part of Osaka hitherto unoccupied by Christian teachers. The native Christians resolved to pay the current expenses of the services held here. They provided a box which, in memory of the widow's mite, they called "the denarii box," and "hung it every Sunday in the front part of the house, so that the people might place in it their weekly gifts." Since then all the preaching places and churches connected with this mission have been provided with denarii boxes.

Under the direction of Mrs. A.D. Hail a "woman's meeting" was inaugurated to teach the Japanese women domestic handiwork by which they could earn money to assist in maintaining the preaching places. These meetings were well attended and grew in interest and good results. In 1882 the native membership increased more than two hundred per cent. Our half-dozen missionaries felt themselves inadequate to provide for the multiplying. demands of the work. They pleaded earnestly for reinforcements. Work "after the manner of circuit-riding on foot," had been prosecuted in the Province of Kishu, and "a catechumenical class" was in process of formation.

All the converts baptized by our missionaries in any part of the empire were at first enrolled as members of the church at Osaka. [491] This church raised a salary and tried to secure a native pastor. Although there were several young men studying preparatory to taking a theological course no one among them was found "sufficiently acquainted with theology and the holy Scriptures to take the pastoral oversight of the flock." This church "resolved to sustain its own preaching place"--that is, to pay its own rents and relieve the board of all incidental expenses connected with the services. This enabled the mission to rent a new preaching place in another part of the city. Thus at the close of the year, 1882, there were in Osaka three places where our missionaries maintained preaching and Sunday Schools regularly every Sabbath, while private houses in different parts of the city were opened for prayer and other Christian work.

Events of great importance to the cause of Christianity in Japan and to our struggling mission occurred during the year 1883. A missionary conference, in which all the Protestant missions of the empire were represented, was held April 16th-22nd. Delegates from eighteen foreign societies, and representing a native church of five thousand communicants, were present. The report submitted to our General Assembly the next year says:

The Conference came together in the spirit of prayer. All shades of Episcopacy, all the various Presbyterian and Methodist bodies, and different nationalities, came together in a oneness of spirit that proclaimed the essential unity of the body of Christ. The influence of this meeting has been, and will continue to be, felt for good along different lines of mission work in Japan. It will give a greater insight into the work to those Christians in America who have the cause of missions in this empire in their hearts and hands, and give ample instruction to Mission Boards as to the kind of persons that should be sent to this field, and of the best and wisest method of dealing with them so as to secure their greatest efficiency as workers at a minimum of expense.

A still more important event was a general revival of religion throughout the Japanese empire. Describing this revival the corresponding secretary of the mission in his annual report, says:

The results of this revival have been such as to call forth the highest gratitude of all who have given to, and prayed and wrought for, the Christianization of Japan. Many of the churches have almost doubled [492] their membership. The Christian life of the believers has been quickened, and has manifested this quickening in a greater consecration to Christian work, and a spirit of greater liberality. It has done much to eradicate from the hearts of native Christians the deep-seated prejudice against foreigners, which oftentimes made itself felt even against missionaries. Thus has the way for a more cordial confidence in, and cooperation with, missionaries, upon the part of the native church, been opened by the Spirit of God. The native Christians of all denominations hold a biennial Conference, composed of delegates representing the respective churches in the land. The object of this meeting is to consider questions which relate to the life of the church and to its successful progress. Meeting, as it did this year, in the wake of the Missionary Conference, and in the inception of the revival which has been spreading throughout the country, the Conference was converted by the Holy Spirit into a daily and hourly meeting of incessant prayer. At the same time, without pre-concerted action, all the churches in the various cities began daily prayer-meetings. The spontaneity of the movement was so manifest that none could question that the hand of God was directing it. It was but natural for these various streams of quickened religious life to flow together into one channel of Christian effort. The numerical results, so far as conversions are concerned, while they have been very great, are only one of the minor features of importance in this work. ... our own little church has shared with all others in the precious results. Its spiritual condition seems, therefore, to be much better than at any other time in its brief history.

This year the Osaka church selected three men to serve six months as elders. Their re-election was made to depend on the ability and fidelity with which they performed their duties. The church being still without a pastor, these elders were called upon to discharge the duties of the pastoral office in turn, bi-monthly. The members of the congregation, numbering in all about forty-seven, were "scattered over a territory of about three hundred miles. In Osaka, a city of about 600,000 inhabitants, there were thirty-seven members; in Wakayama (out-station), 75,000 inhabitants, one member; in Hikata, a cluster of villages of 5,000 inhabitants, five members; in Tanabe, 11,000 inhabitants, one member; in Shingu, 8,000 inhabitants, three members." In the beginning of their work our missionaries made it their aim to cultivate in the native Christians a sense of responsibility and a feeling of self-dependence in relation to the financial affairs of the church, and [493] the regulation and management of other church interests. The following is a brief statement of the principles governing the mission in its policy:

The leading idea which the mission strives to realize is: The responsibility of the native church for the conversion of Japan. This is the principle which is sought to be made prominent, and which has thus far determined the missionaries' plans of work. It has been their endeavor to follow this idea in defining the relation of the foreign church to the church in Japan: (1) It determines the attitude of the foreign missionaries to the native church to be that of co-laborers and advisers, "as being helpers of their joy and not as having dominion over their faith." While, therefore, they are here as members of a church that has a polity and system of doctrine of its own, yet they do not seek to impose these things upon the converts by any exercise of authority. They encourage any movements on their part toward any kind of union with their native brethren, which will aid them most effectively in carrying out the responsibility which devolves upon them--that is, any union within essentially orthodox doctrine and liberal forms of church government. (2) The missionaries have tried to regulate the use of foreign money for native purposes upon the same principle. Believing that the practice of self-sacrifice and a sense of personal responsibility are essential to the cultivation of a true missionary spirit, the use of foreign money has not been encouraged. When used, it has been as an exception only. The mission, therefore, has no schedule of salaries of native helpers, no definite rules as to aid granted to those desiring to be educated as evangelists or lay workers. In cases where aid is granted, other than directly evangelistic work is required as a compensation--that is, they must pay back to the mission monies expended upon them by the mission. When it is necessary to hire preaching places in neighborhoods where no Christians live, the native brethren are expected to aid in the financial maintenance of such stations. In localities where there are native Christians, they are encouraged to rent a small preaching place within their own means, sometimes aided by private contributions from the missionary, or else to open their own houses. (3) The same formative idea we expect to be governed by in any other phase of the work which may arise. Our experience in the work, as thus conducted, encourages us to hope with reference to ultimate results. Our experience thus far may prove to be only the inexperience of a young mission, yet we shall continue to follow out this principle, subject to further light.

This outline was written for the Osaka Conference in the latter part of the year 1882, by A.D. Hail, corresponding secretary of the [494] mission. The test of experience in the years which have followed has demonstrated the soundness of the principle thus laid down, and the wisdom of the policy growing out of it. The native Christians have shown an increasing disposition to sustain their own churches, and to extend help to new places. Their missionary gifts in 1882 equaled thirty-seven cents for each member, and the year following more than fifty cents per member. In 1884 the total collections for all purposes reached an amount equal to six dollars for each member. When we remember that these people make their contributions out of their poverty, that one hundred and fifty dollars a year is counted a large income, that many earn almost nothing, and that the average pay of those who have regular employment or business is not more than eight dollars per month, we see that they show a willingness to give, far in advance of that shown by the church at home.

Nor has the policy of our mission, in allowing the Japanese Christians freedom in choosing their own methods of work and rules of government, been attended with any evil results. The regulations adopted have sometimes been more strict and wholesome than those enforced at home. For instance, we have this item in the report for the year 1882: "The native brethren have established a rule that persons not well known must wait at least two months after their application before receiving baptism." "This," says the corresponding secretary, "has doubtless saved us from some mistakes."(13) A report made three years later informs us that "The {native} church takes very aggressive ground in regard to the use of wine and tobacco. While it has made no formal utterances upon these subjects, yet the use of such things by non-Christians has such associations that persons coming into the church naturally feel that such habits should be renounced as being inconsistent with Christian character. We have not been very solicitous to correct such an impression."(14)

Mrs. A.M. Drennan, the third missionary sent by the Woman's Board, reached Japan May 4,1883. Early in 1882 the missionaries had called on this board to take steps to lay the foundation of a girl's school and orphanage in Osaka. No Protestant orphanage [495] had at that time been established in that part of Japan. The Woman's Board was asked to send an educated lady, one with experience in the care of a household, joined to ability to teach and a motherly tact and judgment in looking after the welfare of the young, to aid in this work. In response to this call, the board equipped and sent forth Mrs. Drennan, contributing also three thousand dollars to furnish buildings for the proposed school and orphanage. A lot and buildings were secured in the Foreign Concession, and the school was opened with four pupils, January 8, 1884. It has since been known as the Wilmina school. By June, 1884, it had seventeen pupils. At the beginning of the year 1886, the attendance was forty-one, with an enrollment of fifty-nine. This school is divided into three grades, the primary, intermediate, and advanced. The studies, with but few exceptions, are the same as those pursued in similar schools at home. Japanese composition and history are taught, and the Bible is a daily text-book in all the grades. The first year six of the pupils joined the church, and others were awaiting baptism. There were sixty pupils at the beginning of the year 1887. In December, 1886, there were three graduates who have since taken their places as teachers and helpers in missionary work. With money furnished by the Woman's Board, a new building has recently been erected for this school.

In addition to her regular work Mrs. Drennan has kept up daily and weekly classes for young men. Out of these has grown a Young Men's Christian Endeavor Society with forty-five members. Through Mrs. Drennan's influence and under her direction a Japanese branch of the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle has been organized, which in 1887 numbered fourteen hundred members. She also instructs a class composed of the wives of government officers "in English, the Bible, and household duties."

The year 1884 was one of great fruitfulness in other departments of the work. The attitude of the people and the government was undergoing a change favorable to the propagation of Christianity. Men of prominence were beginning to appreciate the benefits of the new faith. The people were ready and eager to hear the gospel. The impetus given the work by the revival of the preceding year was not checked, but steadily increasing in beneficial results. One [496] of the emperor's privy council had petitioned the government to employ Christian teachers, and give instruction in Christian morals in all the schools from the Imperial University down. Another prominent man, "as the result of his investigations abroad, memorialized the emperor in behalf of the introduction of Christianity." China and other Eastern countries were catching glimpses of the light shed abroad in Japan. Of Korea the report made at the close of this year says:

The "Hermit Nation" (Korea), so recently opened for commerce to the Western Powers through the successful negotiations of Commodore Shufeldt, is looking upon the movements in Japan with profound interest. A few days ago that government sent one of its learned men (its historian) to this land in order to investigate its condition since the introduction of Western arts and sciences. This man, Rijutei, became a Christian, and is now employed by the American Bible Society in translating the gospel into his native language. The account of his conversion and work, as given by the agent of that society, is full of interest. While investigating the subject of Christianity, he dreamed that two men appeared who offered him books, and he was told that these were the most useful of all things for his people. When it was asked, "What books are they?" it was replied, "These are Bibles." So deeply impressed was the man by his dream, and also by the truths he heard, that he soon became a Christian, and from that time has been earnestly at work for the salvation of his people. His growth in grace and in knowledge of God's word has been marked and rapid. Through his labors several other Koreans have become Christians. Some of these are students in some of the Tokyo Mission Schools, preparatory to work amongst their own people. A number of other prominent Koreans, in this country for temporary residence, have applied to him to be taught the doctrines of Christ. Certainly in all this there is such a prophecy of what might be in regard to the evangelization of other Eastern nations by the help of a Christian Japan, as to stimulate the Church in Christian lands to devise more liberal things for the speedy conversion of her people.

The preaching of our missionaries was this year attended with gracious results. In February the Osaka church perfected its organization. Two other churches, one at Kuroye (Hikata), a village near Wakayama, and the other at Shingu, "the extremest point of the province of Kishu," one hundred and ninety miles from Osaka, were regularly organized, the former May the 11th, [497] and the latter the month following. The report of the Corresponding Secretary of the mission in the Minutes of the General Assembly for 1887, gives an account of the origin of these and other Japanese churches, illustrating "God's power to use apparently trivial events to produce great results."

The work at Hikata began with one man who, having heard something of Christianity, asked a missionary of the American Board for preaching. This missionary repeated the request to J.B. Hail. "As the interest deepened, the local priest became alarmed, and circulated a pledge against hearing Christianity taught, and against having even business relations with Christians. One man refused to sign the pledge, saying that Christians were the principal purchasers of their manufactures--lacquer work. On inquiry, a number of Bible readers were found in the village, and these formed the `Society of Brotherly Love' for Bible study. The meetings were at first secret, though largely attended," Thus the church grew up.

The history of the work at Shingu still more strikingly shows how the truth in the heart of one Christian proved the seed of a church:

Some years ago a man living at Shingu sent his sister to a Girls' School of the American Board at Osaka. She became a Christian, and on returning home and observing the rules of a godly life was greatly persecuted by her relatives. To spend the Sabbath in a Christian-like manner, she was compelled to retire to the mountains, where she spent the day in reading and prayer. Some time after this Yamamoto San was preaching through that province, depending wholly upon Providence for his support. He reached Shingu late at night without money or acquaintances, and weary with his march through mud and rain. He met a man who proved to be the brother of the girl referred to, and who inquired his name and business. When told that the traveler was a teacher of the religion of Jesus, he invited him to his own house, saying that he wished to learn of that way. From this grew the Shingu church.

The church at Mitani Mura, a village nine miles from Wakayama, was also temporarily organized in 1884. A young man from one of the families of the village went to America to seek his fortune. "His father warned him expressly against the Christian [498] religion, and was enraged to find on his son's return that he had become a Christian. The son patiently endured his father's wrath until he could be heard in explanation of his course, when the father became interested and afterward a believer. The first baptism was administered in 1884." The church at that place in 1886 reported a membership of thirty-two.

The history of the two churches organized in 1885, one in Wakayama and the other at Tanabe, is equally interesting. The events which led to the formation of the Wakayama church are thus briefly stated:

A youth went from that city to America, and there became a Christian. He wrote to his mother of the new-found faith, and so taught its principles and encouraged her that she also became a believer. He was anxious for her to have a teacher, and learning from an Osaka friend whom he met in San Francisco that a Mr. Hail taught in Wakayama, he wrote the missionary requesting him to visit the mother. When the request was complied with, it was found that she had been praying for a teacher: After a satisfactory examination the mother was baptized, and partook of the Lord's Supper with the missionary and his helper.

The membership at this place is now fifty-nine, and the Sunday School numbers one hundred and sixty-two. The church supports a day school of more than one hundred pupils.

At Tanabe J.B. Hail began visiting in 1881. "After a year or two there were many reading the Scriptures, but all seemed waiting for some one to make the first profession of faith. On a certain occasion the missionary and his helper were especially burdened for visible results in their work, and without revealing to each other the unusual anxiety felt, they separated for secret prayer. Upon returning to the hotel they met a man who offered himself for baptism." The church thus begun reports a membership of forty-seven.

We will get a better idea of the importance of these mission churches as centers of influence if we remember that Osaka is the "chief commercial center of Japan; Wakayama, forty miles from Osaka, the largest city of its entire province and of its contiguous southern provinces; while Tanabe and Shingu are respectively the sources of supply and trade for several valleys of populous vil [499] lages. In the first-named city are five different Protestant bodies, besides the Roman and Greek Catholic churches. In Wakayama the American Episcopal and Cumberland Presbyterian missionaries, and Greek Catholic and Roman Catholic church are at work; while in the rest of that and the adjoining state, our missionaries alone are engaged."(15)

Two churches were built during the year 1884, one at Shingu and the other at Osaka. Work on the former was commenced when the number of baptized believers in the town was only four, and none of them well to do in the world. The report adds: "Yet God, who always honors faith in him, blessed them with hearts to expect great things from him and to undertake great things for him. The people of the village came generously to their aid, and a handsome little church was built and dedicated."(16)

The Osaka church was dedicated in October, 1884. The congregations at Tanabe and Wakayama have since built houses of worship. The other churches rent their preaching places. Up to 1887 none of these churches had pastors, because none of the native preachers had attained to the standard of qualification which was thought necessary. The elders and leading members assume the duties and responsibilities of pastoral work.

In October, 1884, the several churches, three of which had up to that time been formally organized, appointed delegates to meet with the Osaka church to take steps for a better organization. "They were in session about one week, and considered such topics as Form of Government, Confession of Faith, Missions, and Educational Work. The missionaries were called on occasionally for advice, but sustained to them no other than an advisory relation." They organized themselves into a temporary body to meet semi-annually, arranging to have representatives from the elders and brethren of the several churches until they should be supplied with pastors and be able to form a presbytery.(17) These meetings are still held regularly, and the body made up of the assembled delegates is dignified with the title of presbytery.(18)

The apprenticeship of Miss Orr and Miss Leavitt in language [500] study and other preparatory work had in 1884 proceeded far enough to enable them to enter regularly upon their missionary labors. Miss Orr at first devoted herself to work amongst the women in the out-stations in the province of Kishu, while Miss Leavitt engaged in similar work in Osaka. Both these young ladies have proven most efficient and consecrated workers. Miss Orr obtained a permit from the government to live for three years at Wakayama, with freedom to travel through the province at will. When Miss Bettie A. Duffield, of Missouri, the fourth missionary sent by the Woman's Board, reached Japan, April 24, 1885, the church at Wakayama secured permission for her, also, to live in that city three years. While studying the language she was associated with Miss Orr in a co-educational English day school, which was opened by the Wakayama church in November, 1885. This school, which is established on a thoroughly Christian basis, and which is "exclusively under the control and management of the native Christians," had, besides Miss Orr and Miss Duffield, three native teachers. The number of its pupils grew from forty in 1885, to one hundred and twenty at the close of 1886. During the latter year this school was "so approved by the government officials that they proposed to give a new school building, pay the salary of two English teachers, and continue the management as a Christian school," if Miss Orr and Miss Duffield would devote three hours instead of an hour and a half daily to teaching in it. This proposition was referred to the mission.

Miss Orr's work has not been confined to this school, or to Wakayama. She visits other places, conducting Bible meetings for women, holding prayer-meetings, and instructing inquirers. In 1887 she reported "two growing classes, respectively twenty and ten miles from Wakayama, at Yuwasa and Iwada." At Yuwasa, where the class numbered twenty men and women, it was expected that a church would soon be organized.(19) In a published letter she gives the following account of the origin of this work:

One young man spent a month of successful work at Yuwasa. During his stay, a party of about twelve Christians from here went to the town and held a large meeting in a theater, with an audience of [501] about five hundred most attentive and quiet people. Many school teachers and officials came to the hotel to ask us more minutely the way. Many desire to have Christianity.

Speaking further of the missionary labors of these Wakayama converts, Miss Orr says:

The young men took turns in going to a village, about two miles out, one night in every week, and have met with still more encouragement. Two of the women have gone often to still another village, some eight miles away, and two or three persons there have received baptism as the result, and a church is about to be organized. In consequence of this mission work, the Wakayama church is growing stronger in numbers and in spirit.

Miss Leavitt's labors in the city of Osaka included "house to house visitation of women, conducting women's meetings, catechetical teaching in the ragged school, ... explaining the gospel of Luke in the woman's theological class," and "giving lessons in foreign handiwork." In March, 1855, she began work among the women of the interior at Shingu and Tanabe and other places. In May, 1855, two schools, one for boys and one for girls, were opened by the church at Shingu.A.D. Hail and his wife spent the summer there, and assisted the native church in this work. Miss Leavitt's work now permanently embraces the churches at Tanabe and Shingu. She spent much of the summer of 1866 at Shingu, where she filled "the varied positions of teacher, adviser, class director, and Christian friend." Of this summer's work she says: "It was the hottest, busiest, happiest time I ever spent in Japan." Of a class of five young men, all but one joined the church. These with eleven others made up the largest number ever baptized at one time in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Japan.

Besides the Wilmina school at Osaka, which is supported by the mission, and the English day schools supported by the churches at Wakayama and Shingu, a kindergarten is maintained by the church at Tanabe. There is also a ragged school at Osaka, in a district full of pauperism, and free night schools at Osaka and Wakayama. Classes and night schools are kept up also at other places.

Several young men who have been won to Christianity by our [502] missionaries are studying in America. One of these is Miyoshi San, who has been in Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee, since September, 1844. He graduated in the literary department of that institution, and expects to finish the theological course in 1888, and afterward to devote himself to Christian work in his native land.

In May, 1886, sixteen members of the Osaka congregation received permission from the "Presbytery" to take steps looking to the formal organization of a second church in the city. Counting this second church, there are now seven congregations under the care of the Japan mission, viz.: Osaka, First and Second churches, Wakayama, Hikata, Mitani Mura, Tanabe, and Shingu. At the close of the year 1886 the total membership was 275, and there were 302 pupils in the Sunday Schools. During that year there were 157 baptisms. The growth of the church is indicated by the number in communion at the close of each year since the first two young men were baptized, September 26, 1880. In 1880 there were 3 members; in 1881, 8; in 1882, 27; in 1883, 47; in 1884, 124; in 1885, 208; in 1886, 275.

In December, 1886, the Rev. George G. Hudson and wife, and Miss Rena Rezner, all of Illinois, arrived in Japan to join the mission. Miss Rezner is the fifth missionary sent by the Woman's Board, and is associated with Mrs. Drennan in the Wilmina school.A.D. Hail, accompanied by his family, is now (September, 1887) in America on sick leave.

Composing this mission there are eleven persons besides children. The whole list is as follows: J.B. Hail and wife, A.D. Hail and wife, Miss Alice M. Orr, Miss Julia A. Leavitt, Mrs. A.M. Drennan, Miss Bettie A. Duffield, George G. Hudson and wife, and Miss Rena Rezner. All these, except Miss Orr and Miss Duffield, reside at Osaka, on the Foreign Concession. The need of additional missionaries is very great. From the first and through all the years the force has been inadequate to meet the ever-increasing demands and opportunities of the work.

It was a great gain to the church when it at last had its own successful missionaries in the foreign field under the direction of its own board. This was necessary to awaken the activity and call [503] out the strength of the church. Up to 1845, when our General Board of Missions was first organized, and for a number of years afterward, "Cumberland Presbyterians were accustomed to make their contributions abroad, except what was appropriated to Indian missions, through the American Board. The members of the Presbyterian Church did the same until the inauguration of their Foreign Mission Board in 1833."(20) From 1810 till the present time two young ladies and one married couple are the only Cumberland Presbyterians who have gone to a foreign field under the American Board. But these did not bring the work home to the hearts of our people. The Indian work under our own board called forth a hundred-fold more interest. The American Board and its missionaries were to Cumberland Presbyterians telescopic, like the far-away splendors of the fixed stars. But now the case is different. When our own familiar acquaintances, our brothers and sisters and sons and daughters, go forth, and are supported by our own gifts, the heroism begins to enter our own homes. Our young men and women begin to ask, If these can go and be missionaries, why may not we also? The stirring power of a heroic example right in our homes is far more precious than all our money. It is that which the church needs. If every large congregation had its own missionary sent from its own Sunday School to some foreign field, and not only sustained this missionary, but kept up constant correspondence with him, the results would far outweigh all the money ever given to missions. The children in such a Sunday School would receive new impulses toward nobler things. Selfishness and worldliness would be rebuked. Pastors would find their hands strengthened in every effort they make against worldliness, and every appeal to nobler impulses would meet with increased success. Our own missionaries under our own board, in the very nature of the case, come nearer to our own people. Their work and their support become a part of the work of every congregation.

Our women's missionary societies over the whole church are in correspondence with our own missionaries in Japan. A letter from some of these missionaries is read at almost every meeting of our [504] numerous societies and children's bands. Thus the missionary spirit is everywhere kept alive.

While Cumberland Presbyterians have found so great a gain growing out of their own independent missionary work, they are not opposed to the closest possible co-operation with other churches; in the foreign field. On this subject the General Assembly of 1885 unanimously adopted the following declaration:

We believe union on the foreign mission field is desirable, and will cheerfully enter into whatever measures may seem best looking to that end. Instead of transferring our differences to mission lands, we would join our sister denominations in the plan of establishing one Presbyterian Church in each mission field. We regard it as very desirable, if not essential, to formulate a short and simple yet comprehensive creed in harmony with and containing the essential doctrines held by the churches composing the Alliance, the same to be used in ordaining native ministers, elders, and deacons.

By the Assembly of 1887 this action was re-affirmed. Full confidence in our missionaries and in the native members of the churches organized and trained by them was expressed. "The conducting of negotiations for union with other Presbyterian Churches in Japan" was therefore intrusted to these missionaries and native Christians, with the stipulation "that in any basis of union that might be agreed upon they were to be careful to preserve untrammeled their privilege to hold and teach such views of the holy Scriptures as are peculiar to the Cumberland Presbyterian Church." It was provided, also, that if such a union was entered into, the missionaries of our board were to continue under its direction in their work, and to receive support from its funds; and that these missionaries, while holding their ecclesiastical relations with the union church in Japan, were to be " recognized in all other respects as belonging to us, and when in this country and present at the General Assembly or other judicatures, to be entitled to seats as advisory members." On all parts of the field in all periods of its history the Cumberland Presbyterian Church has given its utterances in an unequivocal tone in favor of the utmost practicable union of evangelical denominations.

The-long-talked-of, long-delayed mission to Mexico was regularly opened in 1886. The Rev. A.H. Whatley, of Texas, who was [505] graduated from the Theological School of Cumberland University, June, 1885, was appointed missionary. He was set apart for this work January 10, 1886, at Lebanon, Tennessee. He soon after proceeded to Mexico, where he spent fourteen months "in preparatory work, the study of the language, the people, and the field." At first he lived at Chihuahua, the capital of the State of the same name. He was sent with instructions from the board "to study well the situation, and take ample time for deciding both as to where and how the work should be begun." "After careful investigation during several months, Aguas Calientes was selected as the place for establishing the first Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Mexico." This is a city of thirty-five thousand inhabitants, situated about two hundred and eighty-five miles north-west of the City of Mexico. It has seven Roman Catholic churches, but no Protestant church, and is "one of the neediest fields in Mexico." The missionary advised the board to purchase property for a church, and to establish a school. Illustrating the importance of beginning the work in this way, he said in a letter to the board:

In this country the missionary has to meet the people principally in a public place. The customs of the country will not admit of his visiting from house to house, even among the poorer classes, until he is acquainted with them. One does not easily get acquainted with a people some of whom make the sign of the cross when he merely passes the window. that they may be delivered from the power of the devil, whose servant he is supposed to be. There are many people whose curiosity would lead them to church, whom nothing could induce to enter a place of worship in a private house. ... These people are much more scrupulous about these things than we are. They have been accustomed to magnificent churches, and many of them look with contempt on the feeble beginnings of a Protestant mission. ... The board is right, too, in its policy of establishing a school in connection with the mission. The importance of this branch of the work can hardly be overestimated. The Mexicans are very anxious to have their children study English. This interest in our language will furnish pupils for our school.

The Board of Missions, in its report, May, 1887, says of this work:

Our missionary to Mexico, the Rev. A.H. Whatley, has already acquired a sufficient knowledge of the Spanish language to enable him [506] to speak and to preach to the people in their native tongue. He recently returned to the United States and took a wife, a devout Christian, intelligent and resolute, who will henceforth share his labors and rewards. Property suitable for a chapel and a school will be bought at as early a date as practicable. A portion of the needed funds has been contributed by individuals. The Woman's Board, ever prompt and cordial in cooperating with your board in aggressive movements, has appropriated one thousand dollars for tile Purchase of property, and in due time will supply the proposed school with one or more lady missionaries. The total cost of property and improvements will probably amount to three thousand dollars.

At the meeting of the General Assembly of 1887, at Covington, Ohio, the Rev. F.P. Lawyer, of Illinois, a graduate of Lincoln University, and of McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, was formally consecrated to the foreign work in Mexico. It is expected that he will soon join Mr. Whatley and his wife in the mission at Aguas Calientes.

In the last ten years new missionary life has been awakened in our Theological School. An annual course of lectures on missions before the students, by Dr. C.H. Bell, has done much to bring about this result. Our school has been well represented in the meetings of the Inter-Seminary Missionary Alliance.

The Board of Missions has for several years been issuing a monthly paper, The Missionary Record. Its able editorials and its aggressive yet catholic spirit have made it an increasing power of good to the church and the cause of missions.

The introduction of radical changes, however desirable those changes may be, is always a slow work. The one thing in which the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was of necessity deficient at first was systematic giving. It had no pastors: could have none while our fathers were all out planting the church in the wilderness. It had self-forgetting heroism of the loftiest pattern, and these fathers accomplished the mission whereunto God had sent them. Now, the work of patiently training the organized congregations in the systematic consecration of their wealth to God is our most pressing duty. This duty rests on parents, pastors, and church courts. The home, the nursery, is the most important place for this training. Here is the beginning of missionary edu [507] cation--to teach the little ones that deep love to Jesus which can not rest without doing something for his kingdom. How we do miss this high purpose when we put these little immortals on a course of church theatricals and other substitutes for God's plan of training! The cause of missions appeals to the highest motives which can influence the heart. God's plan is to develop in the church a supreme love to Christ, so that it will be more than our meat and drink to work, to give, to suffer, and, if need be, to die for his kingdom.

To secure such training throughout the church will require many things, and require that these things be persisted in a long time. Cooperation among the church boards, the church courts, and the church papers--among pastors, and Sabbath Schools, and parents, in carrying out God's own appointed plan of systematic beneficence must be secured. Let presbyteries beware of nullifying the wholesome plans of the General Assembly. Let patient training go on. We are making progress, but years of labor will be required--perhaps generations must pass away--before we come up to the gospel standard. And while these generations pass away, let us not forget that generations of unsaved heathen are also passing out into eternity.

The most powerful sun-glass will not set fire to tinder even unless you continue its concentrated light on the same spot. You must give it time. Time and persistence in concentrating the missionary spirit upon the rising generation of Christians are needed. Training is never the fruit of spasms and changes. We want a sun-glass in our theological schools, Sunday Schools, and homes. We want the very sun himself in our pulpits, and by and by we shall have a blaze which will kindle and burn throughout the church.

Let it be borne in mind that the church at home can not live without the influence which foreign missions exert upon it. Without this the great swelling floods of worldliness would soon sweep the church away, or make its professions an empty sham. Infidelity is the home product of sham consecration. A whole neighborhood was once rapidly drifting into infidelity. The leading men in the churches were at heart infidels. Men not members of the church openly mocked at the hypocrisy of modern Christians. [508] While that was the general state of things, Christ had one loyal servant among the mothers of that neighborhood who trained her children to be what they professed. By and by three of this woman's daughters went as missionaries to the heathen. An immediate revolution began in that neighborhood. Infidels ceased to cry out "sham." Three of the leaders among them became Christians, and when they joined the church they stated that it was the going forth of those young ladies as missionaries which annihilated their skepticism.

A Southern presbytery (Presbyterian) was full of dissensions. Its meetings were scenes of wrangling. In the midst of all this, one of the young men belonging to the presbytery returned from the theological seminary to ask for ordination as a missionary to the heathen. At his ordination every heart was melted and every feud was forever healed.

J.B. Taylor tells us that after he saw Mr. Scudder embark for a distant mission, from that day onward his own preaching of the gospel rose to a higher plane. We must have all these elements of the gospel--love, and consecration, and self-denial--or else our home pulpits descend to the plane of mere human entertainments.

The home church will never grasp the real divinity of Christianity till it comes up to the divine pattern of entire consecration to Christ's kingdom. A patient study of the glorious promises which God makes to his people shows that they are all linked with this entire consecration. While God's sovereign grace may extend blessings to churches which are not thus consecrated to him, there are no assurances that such blessings will be bestowed, but many reasons are given why we should cherish no such expectation. On the other hand, it is absolutely certain that the divinity of Christianity will be realized and known by those who are thus consecrated, will be manifested to their children, and will convince even the gainsaying and the skeptical. We have had no missionary work since the days of the apostles. We have only been playing a little at missions. Let the church of this day give men and money as the apostolic churches gave, and thousands of consecrated missionaries will immediately be added to the forces now in the foreign field.




It is not necessary that this should be a school of three hundred boys. ... It is necessary that it should be a school of Christian gentlemen.--Dr. Thomas Arnold, of Rugby.

What was known as the removal of Cumberland College from Princeton, Kentucky, to Lebanon, Tennessee, in 1842, has already been discussed. Among those who composed the first board of trustees of this institution at Lebanon were some of the best men in the country--men fitted to lead in all noble public enterprises. Deservedly foremost among these was R.L. Caruthers, who was made president of the board. Who can estimate the value of one great-souled leader? In all noble plans for the advancement of the institution's interests, this man led the way. If he had been what the world now calls wealthy, the university would long ago have been fully endowed. His estate was large enough to enable him to place his name at the head of every subscription paper circulated to raise money for the institution. He led not only in liberal giving, but in planning liberal things. He scorned all littleness and meanness of policy in the management of the college business.

Members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church were nearly always selected as trustees. When exceptions were made it was not from any lack of suitable men of our own, but for the purpose of extending the influence and increasing the usefulness of the institution. James C. Jones, who was once Governor of the State, though not a Cumberland Presbyterian, was a friend to the church and made a good trustee.

The members of the board at a regular meeting, in 1842, designated their choice of men to compose the college faculty, as follows: F.R. Cossitt, D.D., President; the Rev. C.G. McPherson, Professor of Mathematics; the Rev. T.C. Anderson, Professor of Latin [510] and Greek; and N. Lawrence Lindsley, Professor of Modern Languages. At a later meeting the same year, T.N. Jarman was appointed tutor. All of these ultimately accepted their appointments, but McPherson alone agreed to enter on his work at once. He, with the assistance of a student as tutor, opened the first term, September, 1842, in the building now known as Mrs. Jones' school-house. At the opening of the second term, February, 1843 Dr. Cossitt, and Tutor Jarman arrived and entered on their duties. The third term, beginning September, 1843, Dr. Anderson entered on his duties; and Dr. Lindsley began his labors in the department of modern languages September, 1844. This was then considered a pretty full faculty.

Meantime it became plain enough to the church at large that in order to make the college at Lebanon a success, it would be necessary to abandon the "removal" idea, and regard this school as a new and original enterprise. To this view of things none gave more cheerful acquiescence than the people of Lebanon. A new charter was obtained in 1844, in which the institution was called Cumberland University, instead of Cumberland College. The trustees had already resolved to secure a university organization, according to the American interpretation of that phrase--that is, they resolved to establish a group of professional schools around a college of arts as a center.

When the fifth term of the college opened, the buildings erected specially for it were ready for occupation. This gave great relief, as the patronage had grown beyond the accommodations.

At a meeting of the trustees, July 29, 1842, they defined the nature of their obligations for teachers' salaries, and declared that definition to be of perpetual application. This action has been repeatedly re-affirmed. In pledging a salary to any professor, they simply pledged to each his part, pro rata, of tuition fees and endowment interest, and any deficiency of salary remaining still unpaid was to constitute no debt against the institution, unless in some future session there should be a surplus from this fund after paying current expenses--a thing by no means likely ever to occur. In two cases, after rigid investigation made by disinterested experts, it has been decided that the institution did not owe any debts to [511] professors who had not received their full nominal salary, but had drawn their proportional part of tuition fees and endowment interest. Two faults, however, are undeniable: one, that this law about salaries was not always kept clearly before the professors; the other, that in case of a favorite professor, the trustees have sometimes departed from this regulation.

The year 1845 was marked by several changes. Dr. Cossitt this year resigned, and Prof. Anderson was elected to the president's chair. Prof. McPherson retired from the chair of Mathematics, and was succeeded by A.P. Stewart; and James H. Sharp was appointed to the chair of Physical Sciences. This, too, was the first year in which the institution published a catalogue. The roll of students numbered ninety-six. Of these, twenty-five were candidates for the ministry.

From the very first the institution gave free tuition to all regular candidates for the ministry, without distinction of denominations. In addition to this liberality on the part of the faculty--for the school had as yet no endowment--about fifteen of the citizens of the town entered into an agreement that each would give one young preacher free boarding. Several of the number kept two each. But liberality of soul does not give infallibility of judgment. A few who proved unworthy were cared for and petted, while some of the church's noblest servants, as the after years proved them to be, who were sent here in their plain clothing and poverty, were rejected as unpromising by the good people to whom their presbyteries commended them, and went away deeply mortified and embarrassed to seek their education elsewhere. But the great majority of those who received this generous aid paid back the favor a hundred-fold in usefulness to the church.

As soon as the institution was chartered, it began to struggle for endowment. After various efforts by others, the Rev. J.M. McMurray was appointed agent, and made a most thorough and protracted canvass. The plan which he was instructed to pursue was to take notes bearing interest. The interest was to be paid annually, and the principal to be retained by the donor during his life-time. By this plan, often modified to suit emergencies, McMurray enlarged the endowment to sixty thousand dollars.

[512] It was soon found, however, that the plan did not work well. It required trouble and expense to collect interest every year from men scattered over so vast a field. In the old note bag of the university treasurer there are today (1887) a large number of these old notes still unpaid. They keep well--so do Confederate bonds. One thing deserves to be commemorated--the persevering fidelity of McMurray in this work. With his family, in his own carriage, through mud, swamps, and snow, over mountains and rocks, and along all manner of rough roads, he plodded on his patient journeys throughout the church.

During the year 1845 the trustees determined to open a law department in the institution. This determination was condemned by several leading men in the church. It was argued that a theological school should be established before trying to build up any other department; and that this effort to secure a law school would divert interest, distract our forces, and delay the one work which has always been nearest the hearts of our people--the establishment of a theological school. Various private letters of expostulation were written to the leaders at Lebanon. This opposition, private and public, continued and increased till July 26, 1848, when the trustees met and agreed upon a paper to be published to the church, which should quiet all further apprehensions.(21) The substance of this paper was a pledge, to be forever binding, that the law department should never be any tax on the church; that it should forever support itself, without asking the church for any assistance. The publication of this pledge in the church papers quieted the opposition. The organization of this department was delayed by the refusal of men chosen for that work to accept their appointment. At last (1847) Judge Abram Caruthers was secured as law professor, his brother, Robert L. Caruthers, becoming responsible for any deficiency which might arise in the salary. The law school was opened in R.L. Caruther's law office. There were thirteen students the first term, among them the present chancellor of the university.

In 1848 the Hon. Nathan Green, Sr., then Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, and Hon. Bromfield L. Ridley, one of the [513] State Chancellors, were secured to teach in the law school as much of their time as their other engagements permitted. In 1852 Judge Green resigned his position on the Supreme Bench, and devoted his whole time to the law school. This school grew to great prosperity, paying at one time over four thousand dollars per annum to each of its professors.

The other departments of the university also grew and prospered. Prof. Wm. Mariner, was added to the college faculty in 1847, and Prof. J.M. Safford succeeded Prof. J.H. Sharp in the chair of Physical Sciences in 1848. Prof. W.J. Grannis was secured for the preparatory school in 1852. He still occupies this position. Many different persons served as tutors for short terms.

One thing which has made its impression deep on the church and the country is the very high grade of scholarship possessed by the faculty of this institution. In no one thing is there greater verification of the saying that "like produces like," than in the similar grade of scholarship found in teachers and their pupils. In all churches, all countries, all ages, this truth holds good. The scholarship of the teacher is reproduced in the members of the classes taught by him. The records of the English universities kept from generation to generation show that in rigid and impartial examinations, conducted from year to year, the first honors have nearly always been won by students whose professors were first honor men, and very seldom by those taught by professors who had themselves won no honors. If there were some method by which the senior classes of all the colleges of this country could be annually brought to some such test, it would do much toward promoting thoroughness in our institutions of learning.

As Cumberland University grew, its buildings were found to be insufficient. A magnificent extension to these buildings was designed, and T.C. Blake was in 1856 sent out to secure money for its erection. The plan on which the agent was instructed to operate was mainly the sale of scholarships. The building was to include dormitories, and the rent of the dormitories was to pay the interest on the scholarships. In addition to the new donations to be taken on this plan, the agent was authorized in some special cases to convert endowment notes secured by McMurray and others [514] into building scholarships. The needed amount was secured and the new buildings erected. A large part of this sum was contributed by citizens of Lebanon. The rent of the dormitories was for a while a pretty good equivalent for the subtractions from the endowment. The handsome buildings were an ornament to the town, and a great help to the institution. Placing all departments in one building, however, involved some serious disadvantages, and is not likely to be tried again by Cumberland University.

President Anderson's administration was long and prosperous. A man of deep piety, whose heart was set far more on the kingdom of Christ than on any literary fame or earthly interest, he struggled nobly to train up a cultivated army of Christian soldiers. Broken down in health before he became connected with the institution, and continuing an invalid all the remainder of his life, he yet managed to do a noble service for his church in the long years he spent as president of this university.

The long-delayed theological department was opened in 1853. The Rev. Richard Beard, D.D., was its first professor. Dr. Cossitt had been elected, but declined. Dr. Beard, who gave his whole time to this work, was aided in it by the president of the university and the pastor of the Lebanon congregation. As this department had at first no endowment, Dr. Beard's salary was secured by private contributions from citizens of Lebanon. The Rev. W.D. Chadick, D.D., was then sent out to solicit endowment specially for this department. He secured notes amounting to nineteen thousand dollars. Then the Rev. W.E. Ward was commissioned as agent, and he secured nine thousand dollars in notes.

The patronage of the Theological School was small. In 1858 it had its first graduating class, four in number. With but one professor, and no available endowment, the outlook was certainly gloomy. Dr. Beard, however, toiled on, though often greatly discouraged. The entries in his private diary are often very sad. He began to doubt that his church really wanted a theological school. He grew very sensitive on the subject. Some statements in the church paper from one of the older preachers he regarded as an attack upon the whole system of theological schools, and he wrote a long series of articles in reply. Then another aged minister, [515] while on a visit at Lebanon, preached a sermon which Dr. Beard construed as another attack on theological schools, though the preacher afterward disclaimed any such intention. Dr. Beard spent a week in gloomy fastings and heart searchings. "Am I wrong? Have I taken a wrong step? Thou, Lord, knowest my whole heart. If this work is not from thee, Lord, shut the door on it forever." Thus he wrote in his diary. After that his spirit had rest. A sweet assurance of God's approbation filled his soul, and he went on with his half-paid labors all the remainder of his life. His professorship lasted twenty-seven years.

The university grew and prospered. The largest number of students ever reported for one year was four hundred and eighty-one. That was in 1858. Nearly half of these were law students. In that year the Law School reached its greatest prosperity.

Then came the war, closing out all departments and sending members of the same class to fight against each other in different armies. The war wiped out the endowment, burned down the buildings, destroyed the library, and filled all the friends of the university with despair. Stunned, bewildered, heartless, the surviving trustees, after the war, looked on the old columns which marked the site of the burnt buildings, with very little hope of ever seeing another college class taught in their town. About this time the Rev. W.E. Ward, D.D., visited Lebanon. He was an alumnus of all the departments of the university. Walking sadly about the old ruins, he took out his pencil and wrote on one of the then standing columns, "Resurgam." The word was taken up by others, and soon became the watchword for a new struggle. The Rev. T.C. Blake was sent out as an agent to raise money for the erection of new buildings. The whole country was a scene of confusion and desolation; but in spite of the discouragements he secured in notes and cash over thirty thousand dollars.

Dr. Beard and Dr. Anderson secured a hall and proclaimed their readiness to receive pupils in the College of Arts. The two Greens--father and son--in another hall opened the Law School. Very few matriculants were enrolled in either department the first session.

Some of the trustees advocated the policy of abandoning all [516] the old departments except the Law School. The board resolved to purchase the former residence of Abram Caruthers, deceased, for this school. For the buildings, sixty acres of land, and the work needed to fit up the buildings, they agreed to pay sixteen thousand dollars. Their only building fund was the unpaid notes which had been secured and handed over by Dr. Blake. The aim was to raise half the purchase money by subscriptions from Tennessee lawyers. This plan, however, was not successful, and dissatisfaction about the purchase became general.

The Law School never occupied these buildings, but the trustees turned them over to the College of Arts, hoping in this way to conciliate the people. But this measure had the opposite effect. It was interpreted as a deliberate abandonment of the plan for rebuilding on the old site. A large majority of those who had promised to contribute to the building fund refused to pay their notes, and most of these notes remain unpaid, and will doubtless so remain forever. Much prejudice and ill-feeling were thus engendered.

This was the state of things when the writer of this history became president of this institution.(22) Dr. Anderson had resigned a year before, and the presidency had been offered to Gen.A.P. Stewart, and perhaps to others. Then the school had remained without a head for some time. The prospects were very dark. The condition of things when the new administration began beggars all description. There was deep-seated dissatisfaction about the buildings. There was no hope in the Board of Trustees. There were old debts contracted before the war, and pressing like hungry wolves. There was not an advertisement of the school in any paper. There was no endowment, there was no money belonging to the institution. And worse than all else were those rentable scholarships by whose aid the burnt buildings had been erected. Many of these were sent to Lebanon to be rented to the students at less rates than tuition fees, and there was nothing to compensate the faculty for teaching the pupils who rented these [517] scholarships. These and many other equally trying things involved perplexities and struggles which only the Omniscient One and those who grappled directly with these difficulties can understand. No matter, "Resurgam" became a fulfilled prophecy.

The plan for work in the institution was, at whatever cost, to secure a full and able faculty. Private subscriptions at Lebanon, supplemented by what was called "the cash endowment," enabled us to accomplish this object. Many of the leading newspapers of the South declared ours to be the best faculty in all the Southern States. A distinguished jurist said, "Cumberland University has shot out of the channel ahead." Not only were our professors able and tried educators, but they had filled high positions of trust, which fact went far toward giving influence and power to the university.

For a few years we were steadily overcoming the difficulties. The institution, for the first time in its history, was out of debt. Endowment, unencumbered and real, was slowly but regularly secured. For this work, reliance was placed on several things. The main one was to enlist the efforts of pastors. This method was extensively successful. Next to that was a series of well studied articles in the church papers. There were also vacation trips and visits and speeches to the church judicatures. The wealthy were called upon in order to secure donations. These methods, combined with "the cash endowment" for immediate use without investment, made up the programme by which the work was sustained.

The Finley Bequest, secured in 1869, now furnishes the best part of the living of the theological professors. A will, made through the influence of one of our pastors at that time, has been changed since into a ten thousand dollar cash contribution. Several small tracts of land were about this time deeded to the university, and turned by it into money to meet some of its pressing wants. Extensive mining lands, which were thought then to be valuable, though nothing has ever been realized from them, were secured; also a tract of land lying between Kansas City and Independence, Missouri, which promises to be very valuable. A dear friend of the university holds a life-time reservation claim on the tract last [518] mentioned, so that it is not now available. This land was donated to the university in 1870. It was then supposed to be of sufficient value to endow a professorship. Its value has since increased greatly, and is perhaps the largest donation ever made to the institution.

The largest gift of books which the university ever received was made in 1869. This is the library of the Rev. James Murdock, of the theological department of Yale College. It is specially rich in patristic and historic literature. This library was donated by the Hon. Abraham Murdock, of Columbus, Mississippi. He is a son of the old Professor, and was at the time the donation was made under the pastoral care of that active friend of the university, Dr. G.T. Stainback.

When the war closed the citizens of Lebanon were no longer able to give free boarding to candidates for the ministry. Dr. T.C. Blake suggested the establishment of "a camp" for them, similar to the quarters or barracks occupied by soldiers. Provisions were to be solicited from the surrounding churches. As many of the probationers had been soldiers in the war, this plan was the more readily adopted. An old boarding-house, with several small buildings surrounding it, was purchased and named Camp Blake. The money to pay for this property was secured, and an ample supply of provisions was also obtained. Nathan Green, the present chancellor, became superintendent of this novel encampment, and filled this position without any pay as long as this method of providing homes for our young men was continued. His services in that sphere were very valuable, for he not only managed the finances so as to keep the camp clear of debt, but also exercised the kindest fatherly oversight over the young preachers. Some of those who gathered there were very unpromising in appearance at first, but they improved afterward to a degree that placed them in the front ranks of the ministry of our church.

To many an old student the following paragraphs, clipped from one of Judge Green's published articles, will call up pleasant reminiscences:

Yielding to the suggestion of many older and wiser men, I have engaged the services of one of the most refined and elegant ladies of our [519] church to supervise the cooking and grace the table at Camp Blake. The lady has her mother with her, who contributes much to the comfort of the cadets. It was thought indispensable that a lady should be among these young preachers to soften and refine their manners, as well as to protect them against the carelessness of servants. ...

Already, though the next session will not begin for ten days, have the young preachers who intend to enter college next year begun to arrive. I am afraid to say how many will be here next session, for the old ones all remain. I am confident there will be fifty or more. What shall we do with them? They must all eat at once at the table, and they must all eat at the same table. The dining-room now used is too small for fifty men. We must have another, and take this for a dormitory. It has been determined, therefore, by the best advice, to erect a tabernacle.

From fifty to seventy young preachers were provided for every term. Some of these are now among the most successful pastors in the denomination. More young preachers went to college under this arrangement than any other our church ever had. When better times enabled the trustees to make better arrangements, the Camp Blake property, which was clear of debt, was rented out in the interest of the theological department, and is still so used.

One of the great difficulties the college encountered just after the war? was the utter lack of any regular preparatory schools in the South. In view of this, the trustees established detached preparatory schools in several Southern towns and cities. The number of pupils in these at one time reached seven hundred. The mission which these schools were designed to fill was temporary, and when their work was done they were abandoned.

Meantime the troubles about the purchase of the Caruthers buildings greatly increased. Only a small number of the building notes could be collected. About half the purchase money had been paid, and the remaining debt was pressing. Finally the property was condemned by the courts and its sale ordered. The theological school bought it, paying for it just half what it had cost the trustees.

This was one of the wisest steps the theological school ever took. This school had unimproved property in Chicago, which had been for years eating itself up with taxes and agent's fees. The trustees sold this Chicago property for twelve thousand dollars cash [520] The theological school invested four thousand dollars of this money as endowment, and paid eight thousand for the Caruthers property, now called Divinity Hall. Thus buildings and land, which were valued at twice the money invested, were obtained, and the university was saved a sacrifice which would have placed both the theological school and the college of arts out of doors, with scarcely a hope of ever securing a shelter over their heads. Indeed this purchase saved the life both of the theological school and the college of arts. And yet a committee which knew nothing of the facts wanted the next General Assembly to censure the trustees for making it.

The darkest, saddest part of this struggle to build up the university was the bitter but unsuccessful conflict with the life insurance companies. Schemes for securing endowment by persuading men to take out insurance policies in favor of the university were pressed by five different companies. When these efforts were thwarted at Lebanon, the agents of the companies would visit churches and attend the meetings of presbyteries and synods to secure their influence in urging these plans upon the trustees. Some of our ablest ministers were induced thus to take an active part in pressing these schemes.

As the president had several times succeeded in defeating the efforts of these agents, they began to watch for opportunities to press their plans on the board in his absence. In 1871, while he was absent in Alabama, an agent of the Saint Louis Mutual Life Insurance Company, who was also an elder in one of our strong churches, and a true friend of the university, prevailed on the trustees to adopt his scheme. Though this scheme was well meant, and looked plausible, and was indorsed by many friends of the institution, yet its adoption was a death blow to all the plans that had been formed by the president and those cooperating with him. The trustees claimed for the agents of the insurance companies a clear field, not permitting any other method of raising money for permanent endowment, or allowing the collection of cash contributions to supplement salaries. It being known that the author of this history, as president, had no confidence in the scheme, he was enjoined to keep silence. This he did except when conscience re [521] quired him to speak. He did nothing to thwart the agents; but when the friends of other colleges wrote, making inquiries about the "grand scheme," they were warned to have nothing to do with it. The University of Virginia and other institutions were perhaps saved from burnt fingers by these warnings.

The insurance scheme amounted to a disaster. The insolvency of the company after the church had invested many thousands with it, and before the university had received any real benefit, came, sweeping away confidence and hope together. Under the anxiety growing out of this insurance business, and the suspense and final disaster it brought, the health of the president gave way, leaving him in a long struggle between life and death. He resigned in September, 1873, and the Hon. Nathan Green was placed at the head of the institution as chancellor.

Dr. Green receives pay as Law Professor, but his work as chancellor is done without salary. We can often judge of a man's clear-sightedness by looking backward. Dr. Green opposed the purchase of the Caruthers buildings for the law school. He opposed the schemes of endowment by life insurance. He opposed all the schemes for cheap scholarships, and all other clap-trap methods for securing endowment funds. The results now indicate the correctness of his judgment in all these matters.

The most important work of Dr. Green's administration has been that done for the theological school. When he was made chancellor that school had but one professor. It now has a faculty of three professors, and an indefatigable agent is making good progress toward its endowment. Two handsome buildings, large enough for two of the departments of the university, have also been secured since Dr. Green became chancellor.

The institution now has one building for each of its four departments. Its endowment is largely prospective--notes and lands being the main items.

A change of deep significance has taken place in regard to the endowment of the theological school. The General Assembly has awakened at last to the fact that this school belongs not to Cumberland University, but to the whole church. Not the trustees of the university, but the General Assembly planned and inaugurated this [522] department. Cumberland University did not even ask the General Assembly to establish such a department. True, the friends of the university from all parts of the church are very earnest in their convictions that Lebanon is the proper place for such a school, and they urged those views on the General Assembly before the school was located.

At Bentonville, Arkansas, 1885, the General Assembly instructed its own Board of Education, located at Nashville, Tennessee, to appoint an agent to secure endowment for the theological school. So long as the trustees of Cumberland University appointed the agents to endow this department, that fact placed this school in a false light. It is not and never was a mere department of the university. It stands in relations to the university far different from those sustained by the law department. The latter was created by the trustees at Lebanon, and could be abandoned by them without asking the church or the General Assembly.

The church's theological school is a department of the university only so far as such relation is supposed to be serviceable to this school, but it is something more than a mere department. It has relations independent of the university. The propriety of having a separate board of trust for it has often been discussed, but its own interests are against such a separation.

The charter for this department differs greatly in its provisions from the charters of the other departments. One item included in the rules laid down by the Assembly when this school was established, and which was rigidly enforced for a few years, has unfortunately been allowed to pass into forgetfulness. It provides that a committee shall be appointed annually by the General Assembly to visit the institution and report concerning its prosperity and orthodoxy. At a time when so many theological schools are drifting away into heresies and something worse, our church should by no means relax its use of this fortunate provision. We have no right to assume that we are forever free from jeopardy, when some of our neighbors are even now in such trouble.

The fundamental laws of the institution, to which its charter was required to conform, were laid down by the General Assembly when the school was established. (See Assembly Minutes, 1852), [523] The last section of Article V. and three sections from Article VI. are here given:


Section 7.--Each professor, before entering upon the duties of his office, shall solemnly adopt, in such form as the Assembly may prescribe, the Cumberland Presbyterian Confession of Faith and Form of Government.


Section 1.--That the theology taught in the school may be subject to the judgment of the Assembly, it shall be the duty of the Professor of Systematic Theology to write out his lectures to the classes, and when required, he shall submit them to the examination of the board, or to a committee of the Assembly.

Section 2.--Professors, as other ministers, will be amenable to the presbytery, and subject to be arraigned for immorality or heresy. But for their official character they shall be amenable to the Assembly, and upon a recommendation of the board or a committee of the Assembly, they shall be Subject to removal for incompetency, gross neglect of official duty, or such irregularity in deportment or error in doctrine as shall render their continuance in office detrimental to the interests of the school.

Section 3.--As professors may be removed whenever the Assembly shall deem it expedient, appointments shall be made for an indefinite time, except in cases where the board may recommend an appointment for a definite period.

One of the strange questions of the times relates to the theological education of young ladies who are to go out as foreign missionaries. That there should be embarrassment and hesitation about receiving them into the classes of our theological seminary seems to some people very strange. To some of the staid old conservatives of Cumberland University, who have always objected to coeducation, it is a matter of astonishment that such an innovation should be demanded. Now the question is to come before the General Assembly, and we shall see whether or not the world is moving. In this matter the Assembly has entire control.

The tables of statistics relating to the university, published in the Theological Medium, October, 1876, abound in mistakes. The dates, and the figures indicating the patronage, are unreliable. Omitting the temporary and detached schools, the following is a list of all those who have been members of the faculty of Cumberland University: [524]


Rev. F.R. Cossitt, D.D. President July 9, 1842, Sept. 30, 1844.

Rev. T.C. Anderson, D.D. President Sept. 30, 1844, Aug. 24, 1866.

Rev. B.W. McDonnold, D.D., LL.D. President ------, 1866, ------, 1873.

Hon.N. Green, LL.D. Chancellor Aug. 30, 1873,

Rev. C.G. McPherson Mathematics July 9, 1842, Sept. 21, 1844.

Rev. T.C. Anderson Languages Aug. 3, 1842, Sept. 21, 1844.

Mr. ------. Price Tutor for one session Aug. 3, 1842, ------, 1842.

T.N. Jarman Permanent Tutor Sept. 9, 1842, ------, 1844.

B.S. Foster Tutor April 29, 1844, ------, 1846.

N. Lawrence Lindsley, LL.D. Lingua Vetera Sept. 21, 1844, Oct. 13, 1849.

Gen.A.P. Stewart Mathematics Jan. 22, 1845, Oct. 1, 1849.

Gen.A.P. Stewart Mathematics April 3, 1850, Aug. 2, 1854.

Gen.A.P. Stewart Mathematics June 28, 1856, Sept. 2, 1869.

Louis A. Lowry, A.B. Mathematics (temporary) Feb. 27, 1845, ------, 1845.

J.H. Sharp, M.D. Chemistry Feb. 27, 1845, Sept. 4, 1847.

Hon. Ab. Caruthers Int. & Const. Law and Political Economy May 17, 1845, May 1, 1847.

R.P. Decherd Second Tutor Jan. 3, 1846, Feb. 20, 1847.

R.P. Decherd Tutor Feb. 22, 1849, Feb. 16, 1850.

R.P. Decherd Supt. Preparatory Dept. Feb. 16, 1850, Aug. 2, 1854.

Rev. Robert Donnell Lecturer on Theology July 10, 1846, ------, 1848.

Rev. Wiley M. Reed Junior Tutor Feb. 20, 1847, ------, 1848.

Robert Hatton Tutor June 26, 1847, ------, 1848.

Rev. N.J. Fox Tutor June 26, 1847, ------, 1848.

Wm. Mariner, A.M. Asst. Prof. Lingua Vetera Dec. 31, 1847, Oct. 1, 1849.

J.M. Safford, Ph.D. Chemistry, Minerals, Geology June 27, 1848, ------, 1873.

J.L. McDowell Tutor Sept. 11, 1848, ------, 1848.

Wm. Mariner, A.M. Mathematics Oct. 1, 1849, July 12, 1850.

Wm. Mariner, A.M. Lingua Vetera July 12, 1850, ------, 1860.

Rev. J.C. Provine Assistant Tutor Feb. 16, 1850, ------, 1850.

Rev. T.C. Blake Tutor Sept. 20, 1850, June 24, 1851.


Rev. T.C. Blake Mathematics Aug. 2, 1854, June 28, 1856.

Rev. S.T. Anderson Tutor Jan. 18, 1851, ------, 1851.

Rev. W.W. Suddarth Tutor for five months June 27, 1851, ------, 1851.

Rev. E.B. Crisman Tutor for one session Oct. 10, 1851, ------, 1852.

Rev. A.H. Alsup Tutor April 2, 1852, ------, 1852.

Rev. R. Beard, D.D. Systematic Theology April 22, 1853, ------, 1881.

Hubert H. Merrill Teacher, Preparatory Dept. May 24, 1854, July 3, 1856.

W.J. Craw In Dr. Safford's absence June 3, 1854.

A.H. Buchanan Eng. and Engineering Dept. Aug. 2, 1854, ------, 1860.

A.H. Buchanan Mathematics Sept. 2, 1869.

H.A.D. Brown Teacher, Preparatory Dept. Aug. 21, 1856, ------, 1858.

J. Blau Modern Languages July 11, 1866, ------, 1867.

E.G. Burney Prin. Preparatory Dept. Nov. 17, 1866, July 22, 1870.

Ben Decherd Assistant Teacher Preparatory Dept. Aug. 24, 1869, ------, 1871.

T.C. Anderson, D.D. Lecturer in Theology June 30, 1870, ------, 1872.

W.D. McLaughlin Adjunct Prof. Classics and Belles-Lettres July 22, 1870, Aug, 17, 1872.

W.D. McLaughlin Prof. Lingua Vetera Aug. 17, 1872.

D.S. Bodenhamer Teacher, Preparatory Dept. June 6, 1871, ------, 1872.

H.T. Norman Teacher, Preparatory Dept. Oct. 18, 1871, ------, 1872.

John I.D. Hinds Adjunct Prof. Physical Science Aug. 30, 1872, ------, 1874.

W.J. Grannis Preparatory Dept. ------, 1852, ------, 1862.

W.J. Grannis Principal Preparatory Dept. Aug. 30, 1873.

Samuel Y. Finley Teacher, Preparatory Dept. ------, 1859, ------, 1860.

H.S. Kennedy Principal English School ------, 1866, ------, 1871.

N.J. Finney Teacher, Preparatory Dept. ------, 1866, ------, 1867.

Rev. T.M. Thurman Tutor ------, 1866, ------, 1867.

Oliver Holben Modern Languages ------, 1867, ------, 1870.

N. Green, Jr. Tutor ------, 1844, ------, 1845.

T.H. Hardwick Tutor ------, 1851, ------, 1852.

H.H. Merrill Teacher ------, 1858, ------, 1859.

B.C. Jilson Geology ------, 1854, ------, 1856.

E.H. Plumacher Modern Languages ------, 1870, ------, 1871.

W.H. Darnall Murdock Prof. Ecclesiastical History ------, 1873, ------, 1878.

H.W. Grannis Teacher, Preparatory Dept. ------, 1875,

Abram Caruthers Law Professor ------, 1847, ------, 1862.

Nathan Green Law Professor ------, 1848, ------, 1866.

B.L. Ridley Law Professor ------, 1848, ------, 1852.

N. Green, Jr. Law Professor ------, 1856,

John C. Carter Law Professor ------, 1859, ------, 1864.

Henry Cooper Law Professor ------, 1866, ------, 1868.

Robert L. Caruthers Law Professor ------, 1868, ------, 1882.

Andrew B. Martin Law Professor ------, 1878.

S.G. Burney, D.D. Prof. Biblical Literature ------, 1877.

R.V. Foster, A.M. Prof. Belles-Lettres and Hebrew ------, 1877.

John I.D. Hinds Prof. Chemistry and Natural Science ------, 1874.


J.D. Kirkpatrick, D.D. Ecclesiastical History ------, 1880.

E.E. Weir English Literature Sept., 1880.

[525] From the first the law school has combined all the best methods of instruction with the services of the very ablest professors. The instruction does not consist of mere lectures by those who have turned aside for an hour from busy practice at the bar, but able lawyers give their whole time to the classes, teaching by recitations, lectures, and moot courts.

The first want of a student in his preparation for any profession is that mental discipline and development which a college of arts furnishes. To place a student in his professional studies before he learns how to think, is the road to professional failure. Cumberland University could furnish from its own long rolls, many an illustration of this fundamental truth. The department of arts demands larger facilities, and must have them if we would realize the best results.

Wiley A. Hatley, of Arkansas, in a tribute to the memory of his father, John Hatley, after describing many noble services which his father rendered to the church, closes the biographical sketch with these words: "No other part of the legacy he left to his children has been so precious in its influence on them as the money he contributed for the founding of Cumberland University, and for the support of other enterprises of the church. The large sums which he so freely gave to the church, and for the cause of Christian education, brought a greater blessing to those he left behind than the estate which they directly inherited."

Whenever the church resolves to have an endowed college, we shall have it. Not paper resolutions, but heart and pocket resolutions are meant. Small contributions from our entire membership can be secured, if the ministry will do their duty. This general action is the first great lever to prize up big donations. It was to Union College, long fostered by the gifts of a multitude of poor people, that Dr. Nott gave six hundred thousand dollars. "He that hath to him shall be given," is the law in college endowment. General action, even from the poor will make our colleges a success. The tax of one peck of corn on the poor colonists of Massachusetts saved Harvard College, and attracted large gifts even from England.

Let not our people foster the mistaken notion that we are [526] too poor to endow our colleges. Count over how much was lost by members of our church in your county by the war. They bore that loss and yet live. But they pleaded poverty before the war just as much as they do now. Suppose half as much as has been lost had been given to the church, could the donors not have supported their families and lived happily? Look around you and see what the members of the church are paying for railroads. Yes, and still the donors live.

Our men of large wealth have given us no examples of liberality proportionate to their ability. There is a wide field open for usefulness, for happiness, for honorable distinction--open to any wealthy man among us who will break the long spell of parsimony, and lead our rich men in deeds of munificence. Alumni of Cumberland Presbyterian colleges, the cause of learning in our church cries out to you for help.





Besides the university at Lebanon, Tennessee, whose work is described in the last chapter, Cumberland Presbyterians have three other principal educational centers. These are Waynesburg College, at Waynesburg, Pennsylvania, in the eastern part of the territory occupied by our people; Lincoln University, in the North-west, at Lincoln, Illinois; and Trinity University, in the extreme South-west, at Tehuacana, Texas. The object of this chapter is to sketch the history of these three institutions.


Some account of the first efforts of our people in Pennsylvania and Ohio to establish denominational schools is necessary as an introduction to the history of Waynesburg College. We have positive evidence that the missionaries who planted the first Cumberland Presbyterian Churches in Pennsylvania recognized the importance of education, and the necessity for an institution of learning on that eastern border of our denominational field. The Rev. Lee Roy Woods, who began his labors in that State in 1832, testifies(23) that: "To educate up to a high standard was a fixed purpose with Morgan and Bryan. Milton Bird occupied no equivocal position in reference to this question. Donnell, Burrow, Chapman, Aston, Shook--indeed all who took an active part in the [528] commencement of our work in Pennsylvania--were outspoken friends of education--of collegiate education."

These pioneers showed their faith on this subject by their works. The Pennsylvania Synod at its first meeting, which was held at Uniontown, Pennsylvania, October, 1838, passed "a resolution encouraging the presbyteries to foster their educational interests." This synod at that time was made up of three presbyteries, Pennsylvania and Union in western Pennsylvania, and Athens, in Ohio. Each of these presbyteries "was making an effort to furnish the facilities necessary to the liberal education of the youth under its influence."(24)

Greene Academy, at Carmichaels, Greene county, Pennsylvania, in the bounds of Pennsylvania Presbytery, "was largely under Cumberland Presbyterian control, though it never sustained any ecclesiastical relation." The Rev. Joshua Loughran, a Cumberland Presbyterian minister was its principal. "The congregation at Carmichaels was one of the first organized in western Pennsylvania, and under the blessing of God grew in numbers, strength, and usefulness." The influence of the Rev. Lee Roy Woods and the Rev. S.E. Hudson, who were successively pastors of this church, did much to make Greene Academy an ally of Cumberland Presbyterians. Many candidates for the ministry were attracted to this school. Among our well-known and useful preachers who were in part educated here were A.J. Baird, Philip and Luther Axtell, Samuel McCollum, J.W. Cleaver, J.S. Gibson, and A.B. Miller.A.J. Baird for several terms did good service as assistant teacher in this institution.

In the bounds of Union Presbytery, at Uniontown, Pennsylvania, was Madison College. In 1838 this institution was under the controlling influence of Cumberland Presbyterians, though the nominal control was in the hands of a board of trustees, which, according to the statement of the Rev. J.P. Weethee,(25) "consisted of forty-five members, scattered through a dozen States." This school was probably established near the beginning of the century. Ac [529] cording to one statement, it was originally placed under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal church; and another authority says that the Presbyterians at first exercised a dominant influence in its affairs, and that it afterward passed into the hands of the Methodists. By reason of a division in the Methodist church the work of the college dwindled, and was finally suspended; and about 1835 a young candidate for the ministry in the Presbyterian Church was teaching a select school in the building.(26)

John Morgan was then pastor at Uniontown, and the Cumberland Presbyterian Church had so grown in prominence and influence as to attract the attention of the guardians of Madison College; so they sought the alliance and patronage of this new church.J.P. Weethee, a young man twenty-two years old, a graduate of Ohio University, and a candidate for the ministry, was made president, and the college was opened for students. For the first three weeks there were but three pupils. The young man who had been teaching in the college building before Weethee took charge, opened a rival school in another part of the town. This school "was for many years under the supervision of a talented Presbyterian minister," and Mr. Weethee testifies that the sectarian opposition thus begun was continued throughout the eight years during which Madison College was under the patronage of our people.

The institution, however, prospered until it had one hundred and fifty students. John Morgan was for a time Professor of Moral Science, and, when failing health compelled him to resign, Milton Bird was chosen his successor. Among the graduates in the autumn of 1841 was Azel Freeman, so well known afterward throughout the church as an educator and writer. "Previous to his graduation," says Dr. Miller, "he rendered aid as tutor in the college, and immediately upon his graduation he was honored with the appointment to the Chair of Languages."

The Rev. Lee Roy Woods gives the following incident, showing the deep interest which John Morgan felt in this school and in the cause of education. Describing his last visit to Mr. Morgan, Mr. Woods says:(27)

[530] He was far on his way to the end of his race, and was so feeble that he could scarcely talk. After an interview of considerable length, during which we had in a very friendly manner reviewed the past and endeavored to forecast the future of our cause in Pennsylvania, when I announced to him that I would have to go, with much effort he arose from his couch, straightened himself to his full height, and looking me full in the face with an expression that I can never forget, he asked in an easy and familiar way, "Woods, how is Greene Academy getting along?" I gave him an appropriate answer. He then asked how many candidates were there. I gave him the number. I approached to bid him farewell. He took my hand in his, then hot with the fever that was consuming him, and said, with a tone of voice and with an earnestness of manner which showed clearly the deep interest he felt in the subject, and with a pressure of the hand more eloquent than words, "Don't give up your school--hang on to it." Then, referring to Bryan, in Pittsburg, and Bird, on Ten Mile, both settled pastors but not connected with any school, he said, "they may have an easier time, and receive a better compensation than we, but our schools will be doing good after we are in our graves."

During Mr. Weethee's administration this question was brought before the board of trustees: "Are females, matriculated and pursuing a college course, students in the eye of the law?" This question was decided in the affirmative, and Mr. Weethee says this decision made Madison College "perhaps the first co-educational college in the Union."

In the spring of 1842 there was a serious rupture between the president and the board of trustees, and Weethee, Bird, and Freeman resigned; and the college passed for a time into the hands of the Presbyterians. Of his own labors in this school, and his final resignation, Mr. Weethee says:

My recitations began at sunrise, and continued through the day. I often heard twenty classes daily. To keep the college in motion, I at different times was called to fill every professorship. As the institution prospered and became an object of interest "worth having," the opposition increased, until finally by a general union of Presbyterian, Methodist, and Episcopal members of the board, ... the opposition secured a majority of the votes. A change of administration being contemplated, and being well assured that the institution was lost to our church, I resigned.

Two years after Weethee's resignation the college was practically [531] dead. The trustees heartily "repented of their folly in dispossessing Cumberland Presbyterians, and were quite ready to invoke their aid once more." In 1844 they were in correspondence with Pennsylvania Synod. That body at its meeting in the autumn of this year resolved "that the synod ought to take the necessary steps to secure the control" of Madison College. To carry out this resolution a committee was appointed "to offer proposals" to the trustees. In 1845 the synod adopted a report, "which sets forth that the trustees of Madison College had given it into the synod's control."

The Rev. A. Freeman was again elected as a professor, and an earnest effort was made to revive this college. Some students were gathered during the winter, and with the opening of the spring term an additional professor was appointed. But there was "only feeble, faint-hearted co-operation on the part of the synod," and the number of students was not encouraging. In the autumn of 1846 "the two professors resigned, and the synod relinquished all care and control." Thus ended the connection of our people with Madison College.

Within the bounds of Athens Presbytery, at Beverly, Ohio, in 1838, Benjamin Dana bequeathed certain coal lands to an academy to be built at that town. In 1842, John Dodge, of Beverly, deeded several lots to the Rev. Charles R. Barclay, in trust, "for the purpose and to the use of education at and within the Muskingum College (afterward called Beverly College) now erected or hereafter to be erected on said real estate, under and by the exclusive direction and control of the Pennsylvania Synod of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church forever." A three-story brick building, which still stands, was erected on one of these lots for the intended college.

In 1840 the Pennsylvania Synod had discussed this question: Shall the Synod cooperate with the General Assembly in supporting Cumberland College, at Princeton, Kentucky, or undertake to establish a school of high order within its own bounds? A report was adopted by which the synod resolved "to act in its individual capacity," and to raise a fund of thirty thousand dollars for the endowment of a synodical college. A board of twelve trustees was elected, with authority:

[532] 1.--To make proposals to any board of trustees within the bounds of the synod, or to any number of men who shall be incorporated within Pennsylvania, for the purpose of securing the erection of a college building.

2.--To accept such terms as, in the clearest convictions of their judgments, afford the greatest advantages to the synod.

The Rev. J.P. Weethee, whose name stands first in the list of these twelve trustees, informs us that this board located the proposed synodical college at Beverly, Ohio, "induced to that action by the Dodge and Dana grants," and that this was the real origin of Beverly College. A liberal charter was granted to this institution by the legislature of Ohio, in 1843. Mr. Weethee was elected to the presidency. He says:

I removed to Beverly in the fall of 1842, and took charge of the students I could find. The location of the college was soon found to be not what we had anticipated. the town population was then inconsiderable, and the surrounding country was divided in its patronage by the Ohio University and Marietta College. Our denomination was weak, and could afford us but a few students. The college building was not sufficiently finished to be occupied. The winter that followed was very severe and protracted. We made our hotel room our recitation room. ... The Dodge and Dana bequests did not then yield a dime, and we were left with scarcely enough to discharge our board bills.

How long Mr. Weethee continued his efforts in this school we are not informed, nor do we know who were his successors in the direct work of teaching. In 1848 the synod recommended "the tender of the Beverly property to the General Assembly for the use of a theological seminary." Reports were adopted in 1849 and 1850, deploring the condition of this college; and in 1851 a committee summed up the state of things in these words: "No school in operation at present, no agent in the field to solicit funds for the institution, no endowment fund on hand, no apparatus, no library, no professors or teachers." This institution never had a graduate, and it can scarcely be said that it "ever had an existence as a college." After the Ohio Synod was formed in 1853, the management of this school was handed over to that body, though, by some neglect or oversight, the charter was never so changed as to transfer the [533] legal control and the ownership of the property from Pennsylvania Synod to Ohio Synod.

The efforts of Pennsylvania Synod to adopt and build up Madison College had failed; the hopes of those who had desired to make Beverly College the educational center of the synod had also been disappointed. Our people had no legal title to Greene Academy--no assurance that the control of its affairs might not at any time be taken out of their hands. Therefore, in April, 1849, Pennsylvania Presbytery declared that its educational interests imperiously demanded that an institution of learning should be established in its bounds, and appointed a committee of five "to receive proposals for the location and establishment of such an institution." When the presbytery met in the autumn following the committee reported proposals from Waynesburg and Carmichaels, both in Greene County, Pennsylvania. "Waynesburg offered a considerably larger sum than Carmichaels for the erection of a building, and was chosen as the location of what finally became the educational enterprise of the whole church in Pennsylvania." The same autumn "the Rev. Joshua Loughran left Greene Academy and went to Waynesburg, where he built up a high school simultaneously with the preliminary steps of the presbytery for the founding of a college, and which school was merged into the college."

The new building, "a three-story brick edifice, seventy by fifty feet," was erected by the citizens of Waynesburg at a cost of six thousand dollars. Work on it was begun in the spring of 1850, and it was fully completed in the fall of the following year. "On the first Tuesday in November, 1851, the college went into formal operation in this new building." The Rev. Joshua Loughran, A.M., had been chosen president, the Rev. R.M. Fish, A.B., Professor of Mathematics, and A.B. Miller and Frank Patterson, tutors. Miss Margaret K. Bell had been employed in the fall of 1850 to take charge of a school for young ladies, with the design of founding a female seminary in connection with the college. She became principal of what was afterward known as the Female Department. Three young ladies were graduated in this department in the autumn of 1852.

[534] A year later, September 28, 1853, the first Commencement in the college proper was held. At this time, besides four young ladies who received diplomas from the Female Department, four young men, among them A.B. Miller, were graduated in the regular college course.

The charter, which was granted in March, 1850, placed the government of the college in the hands of a board of trustees, a majority of whom were to be elected by Pennsylvania Presbytery. In 1853 the college was transferred to the control of Pennsylvania Synod. Since then all the educational efforts of our church on its eastern border have been concentrated in this institution. Dr. Miller sums up the precise relations of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church to Waynesburg College in these words:

1.--The charter secures to the synod the perpetual use of the property, provided the synod sustains therein at least three professors. (The charter makes no requirement as to the manner in which the professors are to be supported.)

2.--Of the twenty-one trustees, the charter grants to the synod the appointment of twelve. (The synod has, in fact, for twenty-four years, appointed the whole number of trustees.)

3.--By mutual agreement it is a by-law that the trustees shall elect no person to a professorship until the synod has first nominated the person for the place.

4.--The endowment fund of the college is held by another board, styled "The Board of Trust of the College Endowment Fund of Pennsylvania Synod," consisting of five members appointed by the synod, and acting under a charter securing to this board all needful powers and perpetual succession.

Prof. Fish having resigned, the Rev. A.B. Miller was elected to the chair of Mathematics, October, 1853, at a salary of three hundred dollars a year. The want of an adequate financial support was probably the chief cause of the resignation of President Loughran, which took place August, 1855. During his connection with the college Mr. Loughran also preached to the Waynesburg congregation. Dr. Miller testifies that he possessed "excellencies that made him a valuable man in the class-room;" that he was "a great reader, a good thinker, and could hold a class spell bound for an hours" and make a "recitation in his room a de [535] light." But he was unable or unwilling to grapple with the financial difficulties which beset the college, and so yielded its management to other hands.

The synod nominated the Rev. J.P. Weethee as Mr. Loughran's successor, and he was elected president by the board of trustees. Though Mr. Weethee had ceased to be a Cumberland Presbyterian, and at that time "did not belong to any denomination,"(28) yet he professed unabated attachment to our church; and his doctrinal views, as explained by himself, were thought by the synod "to be no serious barrier to his nomination."(29)

Dr. Miller says: "Mr. Weethee entered upon his duties with a strong popular sentiment in his favor. ... He brought into the college a spirit of improvement, and an earnest purpose to build up, and the first year of his labors was marked with decided progress." But difficulties afterward arose, growing in part out of dissatisfaction with the new president's peculiar religious views, and in part out of questions connected with the internal management of the institution. At the end of the third year of his presidency, in the autumn of 1858, on account of these difficulties, and because he "was not paid according to contract," Mr. Weethee resigned.

The friends of the college were much discouraged, and "feared that this educational effort would terminate in a repetition of the Madison College trouble." Some advocated the reelection of the Rev. Joshua Loughran to the presidency, and he was written to on the subject; "but having been once starved out, he made conditions which the synod pronounced impracticable."(30) The Hon. John C. Flenniken was made president pro tem. The Rev. S.H. Jeffery, A.M., pastor of the Waynesburg Presbyterian Church, was called to the chair of Natural Science, and the Rev. A.J. McGlumphy, who had just graduated, was appointed Professor of Mathematics. The real work of managing the internal affairs of the institution fell on the Rev. A.B. Miller, who was vice-president by priority of appointment. Mrs. Miller (formerly Miss Margaret K. Bell) was still principal of the Female Department, and continued in this position until her death in 1874.

[536] Dr. Miller was duly nominated and elected to the presidency in the fall of 1859. At the same time Milton E. Garrison, A.M., a graduate of Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania, was elected Professor of Greek and Latin. A year later W.G. Scott, A.M., became Professor of Mathematics.

Of the condition and prospects of the college when he was called to the presidency, and of his perplexing and responsible duties, Dr. Miller says:

A debt of over three thousand dollars hung upon the college. My salary was very inadequate; and, worse, there was no reasonable ground of hope that it would be paid if the other necessary professors were employed and paid. Dissension had turned a portion of the community against the college. and had begotten in the public mind a feeling of distrust in regard to the future. Accepting the position, and going to work under these unpromising circumstances, it seemed to me more like an effort to make a college than the honor of presiding over one--nor have I yet outgrown that feeling. My special aims were, first, to get the college out of debt, and to establish confidence in its value and permanence. To accomplish the former, and to keep the necessary teaching force in the college without incurring debt, has been the constant ever-perplexing problem through all these years. After looking in vain for other sources of reliable pecuniary dependence, I found it necessary to assume toward the college, in fact, the relation of president, financial agent, and board of trustees. Taught by bitter experience how great are these cares thus thrown on a college president, and admitting that ordinarily such a course could promise only financial ruin, I must record my profound conviction that in this case nothing but the unbounded liberty allowed me in the management of the college could have saved it from hopeless failure.

As tutor and professor and president, Dr. Miller has labored incessantly in this institution for nearly thirty-six years, and is still at his post faithful to his life-time work of building up a Cumberland Presbyterian college in Pennsylvania. In his article already quoted, he says:

I have been compelled to preach in order to live, sometimes supplying points twenty miles distant; I have been compelled to deny myself books greatly needed; to stay at home when I should have traveled; to walk many miles because I could not afford to pay hack fare; to be harassed with debts that have eaten up the mind as cancers eat the flesh; in short, to do a great many things, and to leave undone a great [537] many things, which doing and not doing greatly hindered my usefulness as a public servant of the church. I once turned superintendent of schools, and walked all over Greene county in order to save a little money, and still the college went on, while the nation was fighting its battles. At another time I edited The Cumberland Presbyterian, did all the necessary correspondence of the office, and kept the books, at the same time teaching six hours a day in the college, exercising general oversight of its financial affairs, and often preaching twice on the Sabbath.

Through all the years until her death (1874), Mrs. Miller; as principal of the Female Department, was her husband's faithful co-worker. To the young ladies under her charge "she was at once a teacher, a counselor, a sympathizing friend." She labored almost without pecuniary return, her salary being "for a long time three hundred dollars a year, and never over four hundred dollars," and the full sum of even this pittance was not paid for any year. Through twenty-four years her time and strength were given with the utmost unselfishness and enthusiasm to this work. She really sacrificed her life to build up this institution. Without her brave self-denying work and influence, the enterprise would probably have failed. In addition to duties in her home, which was constantly open for the entertainment of the friends of the college, she usually taught six hours a day. "It can not be doubted that her early death was the result of exhaustion from overwork."

Since 1852 Waynesburg College has each year sent forth a class of educated men and women, many of whom have filled important places of trust and usefulness; and their influence and work have been no inconsiderable factor in promoting the progress of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The largest class ever graduated by this institution was that of 1873, consisting of twenty members--eight young women and twelve young men. The same year the college had three hundred students, the largest number ever reported in attendance. The first five Cumberland Presbyterian missionaries sent to Japan were all graduates of this school.

Waynesburg College has not only sent forth preachers and missionaries, but it has furnished many successful teachers to other schools and colleges, and has trained up its own most valued and efficient teachers and professors. As has been seen, Dr. Miller was [538] himself a member of the first graduating class. Prof.W.G. Scott, who has so long and with such ability filled the chair of Mathematics, was a member of the class of 1857. When Prof M.E. Garrison died, April 7, 1870, after ten years of valuable service as Professor of Greek and Latin, the vacancy thus caused was filled temporarily by J.W. Freeland, A.B., who graduated in 1868. Afterward J.M. Garrison, A.B., a member of the class of 1870, was appointed to this chair. He was succeeded in 1872 by J.M. Crow, A.B., who had received his diploma from the college the year before. After teaching a year he spent two years in Germany and Switzerland prosecuting his studies. Returning in 1875, he resumed his work in the college, winning great popularity; but on account of the insufficiency of his salary he resigned his position. He was not the first nor the last valued instructor whom this institution has lost by reason of its meager financial resources. John F. White, B.S., who was graduated in the same class with Prof. Crow, was made Professor of Natural Science. Going to Harvard University to pursue his chemical studies, he was made assistant professor there, continuing several years in that position. Prof. Albert McGinnis, A.M., who graduated in 1878, and afterward studied in Leipzig, Germany, was elected to the chair of Greek and Latin, and proved a most thorough and successful teacher. He recently resigned this position to accept the chair of Belles-Lettres and the vice-presidency of Lincoln University, Illinois.

Among other graduates of Waynesburg College who served for a time as members of its faculty were James R. Rinehart, Lewis Sayers, John S. Hughes, H.D. Patton, J.C. Gwynn, and A.T. Silveus. Among the ladies who, after their graduation from this institution, proved efficient teachers in it, Dr. Miller mentions Miss Martha Bayard, now Mrs. J.M. Howard, of Nashville, Tennessee; Miss Minerva Lindsey, now Mrs. A. Freeman, of Colorado; Miss Juliet E. Barclay, now Mrs. Wilson, of Iowa; Miss M.C. Carter, afterward Mrs. W.L. Parkinson, and since deceased; Miss M. Lou Hager, now Mrs. M.L. Smith, of Illinois; Mrs. Estelle Biddle Clark, now of Nashville, Tennessee; and Miss Emma J. Downey afterward Mrs. S.F. Hoge, now deceased.

As the Theological School, as well as all the other departments [539] of Cumberland University, at Lebanon, Tennessee, was closed during the civil war, the necessity for some facilities for the theological training of our young men preparing for the ministry became pressing. From the Minutes of the General Assembly we learn that Pennsylvania Synod, in connection with the board of trustees of Waynesburg College, was, in 1863, "making efforts to establish a Chair of Theology." The Rev. S.T. Anderson, D.D., was elected to this professorship. He entered upon his duties in the autumn of 1864, and was also made vice-president of the college. In connection with his duties as pastor of the Waynesburg congregation, he did good service for several years as teacher of Hebrew and ethics. This theological professorship, being without endowment, was not made permanent. No successor to Dr. Anderson was elected.

In the autumn of 1873 "the purpose to erect a new building for the college was projected." A magnificent edifice, with splendid rooms for recitations, for libraries, apparatus, and all other requirements of a first-class college, was planned. In the erection of this building debts have been avoided, and the progress of the work has therefore been slow. Most of the rooms are now finished, and it is "the finest single college building in western Pennsylvania," and by far the most beautiful and imposing structure of the kind ever erected by Cumberland Presbyterians.

We have already seen that in 1840, when Pennsylvania Synod decided to act in its own individual capacity in establishing and sustaining a college, it resolved to raise thirty thousand dollars for endowment. Pennsylvania Presbytery, ten years later, when it accepted the control of Waynesburg College, determined to raise an endowment, and again the mark was set at thirty thousand dollars. When the institution was handed over to the Synod's control, the plan already adopted by the presbytery was continued. The congregations were canvassed by agents. In the General Assembly of 1853 the Committee on Education reported that the funds for the endowment of this school were in part already raised. A similar report next year says the endowment then secured was from three thousand to five thousand dollars. In 1855 fifteen thousand dollars was reported, and the next year the Minutes state that [540] nearly thirty thousand dollars had been recently raised. The report of 1863 places the sum at twenty-five thousand dollars; that of 1865 at thirty-five thousand dollars. In succeeding years still larger sums were reported.

Up to 1881 all the endowment raised for this institution was by the sale of scholarships. A perpetual scholarship was sold for one hundred dollars, and a full course scholarship for thirty dollars. These scholarships were transferable, and could be used immediately. Ten or twenty thousand dollars raised in this way would create scholarships enough to crowd the college with students without yielding an income large enough to support one teacher. "It was," says Dr. Miller, "certainly an error to allow students to use these scholarships before a sufficient fund had been secured to support the required number of professors. As it was, the plan left no tuition fees, and but little in the stead." Purchasers were not required to pay actual cash for the scholarships, but only gave their notes, with the privilege of retaining the principal so long as they paid the annual interest. This interest often proved hard to collect, and many of the notes reported from time to time as endowment proved worthless. President Miller's sketch, written in 1878, says: "Any thing like an exact estimate of the amount of reliable endowment at this time can not be given, though the amount is certainly not less than at any previous period, recent additions fully making up for losses during the last three years of financial failures."

The year 1881 was observed by Pennsylvania Cumberland Presbyterians as a sort of denominational jubilee. Fifty years before, the missionaries sent by the General Assembly began their work in that field. The Pennsylvania Synod had recommended that an effort should be made to raise a sum sufficient to complete the endowment of three professorships as a fit offering to commemorate this semi-centennial year. Thirty thousand dollars was afterward fixed as the sum to be raised "as a semi-centennial offering." Mainly through the persistent efforts of the Rev. P.H. Crider, cash and notes reaching this amount were secured. Efforts further to increase the endowment are still continued and the financial condition of the school is now more hopeful than ever before.

[541] Up to the year 1878 over two thousand students had been enrolled in the several classes and departments of Waynesburg College. In the years which have followed hundreds of others have been added to the list. This school is not only a center of education and culture, but it has exercised a permanent and wide-spread religious influence. It has been the center of numerous revivals, in some of which nearly every student has been enlisted either as a worker or a convert. Speaking of the importance of the work and influence of Waynesburg College, President Miller says: "The money put into this institution, the prayers of the church in its behalf, and the labors and sacrifices of those who have been its faithful instructors, have been indeed as the `handful of corn in the earth on the top of the mountain,' the fruit of which already shakes like Lebanon. Standing like a bulwark and a lighthouse on the eastern border of our denomination, it seems to me not only indispensable to the synod that controls it, but in some measure as involving in its future career the destiny of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church."


Lincoln University was founded in the year 1864 by the Synods of Indiana, Sangamon, Central Illinois, Illinois, and Iowa. The civil war then raging had so divided the country that it was no longer practicable or indeed possible for the churches of the Northwest to patronize the schools in the South. These churches were compelled to establish schools for the education of their children.

Long before the war attempts were made in various parts of the country north of the Ohio to found schools of a high order. In the States of Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa academies and colleges were started, and many of them accomplished much good in the cause of Christian education. At Virginia, Illinois, Union College did good service for a number of years. The same may be said of Cherry Grove Seminary and Mount Zion Academy in Illinois, and Delany Academy, in Indiana.

When the States of the North-west established public schools, these academies for the want of sufficient endowment were forced to suspend operations. At the beginning of the war the free [542] schools were in full blast, and they were at that time very popular. Private and denominational schools were almost entirely deserted. The churches of all denominations saw that if they would have the education of their children under their own care, they must build schools which could compete with and even surpass the schools of the State. Long years of struggle and anxiety passed away. Good men prayed and wrestled with the grave problem before them. At the meetings of presbyteries and synods, and in private gatherings, the subject of education was discussed.

In the darkest days of our civil strife the good men who stood by the church in the North-west did not abandon the cause of Christian education. It has often been charged against Cumberland Presbyterians that they oppose education. But no better evidence of their devotion to this cause can be given than the repeated and heroic struggles they put forth in the North-west in behalf of higher education. There was scarcely a presbytery in all that region that did not attempt to establish a school of high grade. All their efforts were not successful, nor were all of them wise and judicious, but the zeal of the people is to be commended if their judgment is not.

The war caused our people to feel more keenly and deeply than ever before the need of schools, and, at a time when thousands were faltering and ready to give up, the idea of founding Lincoln University was conceived. It is not known who was the first to suggest the idea. It is probable that the suggestion grew out of many anxious and prayerful conferences of brethren. There were at that time a number of educated and devoted ministers in the territory here mentioned. Among this number none stood higher than the Rev. Azel Freeman, D.D. He lived at Newburgh, Indiana, and was engaged in teaching in Delany Academy as its principal. He was a man of great and earnest piety, a most devout Christian scholar. He was always an ardent supporter of the cause of learning. The Rev. J.B. Logan, D.D., a man of great energy and activity, was editing a paper at Alton, Illinois, the Western Cumberland Presbyterian. He earnestly advocated the establishment of schools for the better education of the rising ministry. The columns of his paper were open for the discussion of this subject. [543] Dr. Freeman wrote many articles on the importance of a well endowed school in the West.

It was in the Synod of Indiana, I think, that the suggestion of a school under the combined patronage of the five synods was first made. It is probable that the resolution passed by that synod was written by Dr. Freeman. At any rate he was one of its most enthusiastic advocates, and it was due to his sagacity and urgent appeals that the measure got before the Synods of Illinois and Iowa. When the proposition was once made, it became very popular. All over the three States the matter was discussed with great earnestness and approved with great unanimity.

Commissioners were appointed in the fall of 1864 to prosecute the work. They wrote and talked in the interest of the new movement. By order of the synods they advertised for bids for the location of the institution. Several places were put in nominatim Newburgh, Indiana, and Mount Zion, Cherry Grove, Virginia, and Lincoln, Illinois, were the most prominent places in the contest. The commissioners visited each of the rival towns and heard the propositions of the people. Lincoln was finally chosen as the most eligible and suitable location for the new school. The citizens of that enterprising and flourishing young town made a very generous offer. They agreed to erect a building worth not less than thirty thousand dollars. The commissioners on their part pledged the church for fifty thousand dollars endowment. The agreement was that the school should not begin operations until the money was all raised.

A board of trustees was appointed and a charter was obtained. The institution was chartered as a university--a great mistake. Agents were sent into the field to secure endowment. The plan for endowing the institution was devised by the board of trustees. They had had but little experience in the work of building and endowing universities. They adopted the plan of selling scholarships, in order to secure the needed fund. Scholarships giving very great advantages were sold at very low figures. A two hundred dollar scholarship was made practically perpetual. It secured the tuition of one scholar at a time in the literary department. Five hundred dollars procured a scholarship admitting the pupil to all the departments of the proposed university. The liberal terms [544] of the scholarships and the inflated condition of the currency made it very easy to sell them. Many bought them under the impression that they were making a good investment. The agents soon succeeded in raising in notes the sum agreed upon. Dr. Freeman did excellent service in this work of securing endowment. He raised about thirty thousand dollars of the fifty thousand. The Rev. James Ritchey, of Indiana, was also a very active and successful agent. Richard M. Beard, Esq., from first to last, was perhaps the most successful agent in the field. There was a great deal of enthusiasm in this work, and it was done in a very short time.

In the meantime the people of Lincoln began work on the building. In the year 1865 the corner-stone was laid. The governor of the State, Gen. Richard J. Oglesby, delivered the oration at the laying of the corner-stone. It was a grand day in the history of the church in the North-west. It is due to the people of Lincoln to say that they did far better than they agreed to do. Instead of a thirty thousand dollar house, such as they had agreed to build, they laid the foundation for a building, which when completed cost about sixty thousand dollars. By far the greater part of this sum was given by the people of the town.

It must be remembered that the currency was badly inflated at the time the work was undertaken. The money contributed to the endowment was not worth more than fifty cents on the dollar. Many who subscribed in flush times had to make their payments in hard times. This caused a great falling off in the collections. Many who had pledged contributions failed in business, and many others failed to pay. The trustees, however, did not stop at fifty thousand dollars. Agents were kept in the field nearly all the time for years. They more than made good the losses.

The school was opened in the year 1866, on the 16th day of November. The faculty consisted of the Rev. A. Freeman, D.D., President; the Rev. S. Richards, A.M., Professor of Ancient Languages; the Rev. A.J. McGlumphy, A.M., Professor of Mathematics; J.B. Latimer, A.B., Professor of Natural Sciences; Mrs. Mary E. Miller, Matron, and Teacher of English Literature. The school was coeducational from the first. The course of study laid down by the first faculty was full and complete. Young ladies [545] were admitted to all the classes on terms exactly the same as those required of the young men.

The first year was typical in the history of the institution. During that time nearly all the main features of the school were outlined by its able and scholarly faculty, and particularly by its noble president. It is due to Dr. Freeman more than to any other man that the policy which has ever since guided the faculty in the management of the school was developed. The organization of classes, the formation of literary societies, the foundation of the library, the rules and the government of the institution were all developed by that most devout scholar and teacher and his assistants. He was at the head of the institution four years and during that time he showed a zeal and devotion to the school which has never been surpassed by any man in the church. He perhaps placed too many restrictions upon students. But the law of kindness was on his tongue, and he governed by love. He was driven from his great work by the unwise clamors of a few who were too zealous of orthodoxy. He held views not unlike those held by the professors of Andover Seminary in Massachusetts. These views he never sought to propagate. As a teacher of youth he never inflicted his theological opinions upon any one. If he had been at the head of a theological seminary there might have been some excuse for the war that was made upon him. After serving the institution most satisfactorily for four years, he retired without a word of remonstrance, and pursued a course worthy of all admiration.

He was succeeded by the Rev. J.C. Bowdon, D.D., who was pastor of the church at Evansville, Indiana. Dr. Bowdon was a man of great vivacity, most genial manners, and fine intellectual powers. He ruled by a method entirely different from that employed by his predecessor. He made but few rules, and yet he was universally loved and obeyed. He gave the institution a new impetus in the line of culture. Dr. Freeman was a man for thorough scholarship; Dr. Bowdon gave more thought to culture and social life. He made the faculty and the school the center of the social life of the community. He inspired young men with an ambition for the highest social as well as literary culture. He taught more [546] by example than by precept. Never was there a more genial or more companionable man. He had a vast fund of humor and wit ever at ready command. He was a preacher of strong powers, and wherever he went he made a profound impression for the cause he represented. He had a great power over a popular audience. It was due to him largely that the school gained a wide popularity throughout the entire church. He was born and educated at the South, and he had hosts of friends and admirers in every part of the denomination. His brief career ended before he had time to develop his purposes. He died while in office in the year 1873 among his old friends in Mississippi, and there he was buried. He was loved as few men are ever loved.

The Rev. A.J. McGlumphy, D.D., LL.D., was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. Bowdon. He entered upon the duties of his office in the year 1873, and continued in that position until June, 1887. President McGlumphy was a good executive and an admirable teacher. During his administration an effort was made to start a law school and also a theological department. The Hon.R.C. Ewing, of Missouri, a son of Finis Ewing, was elected Professor of Law. He organized classes and had a number of pupils. About fourteen young men entered the school and studied through one year. The tuition was necessarily small and the attendance was not large. The want of funds compelled the trustees to suspend this school. About the same time the department of theology was opened, with the Rev. S. Richards, D.D., as Professor of Systematic Theology. There were but three or four pupils, and no money to support the teacher, and the undertaking had to be abandoned.

During this time the currency of the country had resumed a more healthy condition. Interest on money began to go down. No tuition was paid by students. The cheap scholarships that were sold to secure endowment were at the command of all who wished to use them. They drove tuition out, and it was impossible to increase the number of the faculty at a time when the number of the students was nearly double what it ought to have been. Nearly all the schools in the country where the patronage of the university came from had enlarged their faculties, and had put into [547] their courses of study new departments. The competing schools had the advantage in wealth, and the people soon began to take advantage of the better opportunities that were offered them elsewhere. The trustees had no money to employ additional teachers, and none to procure libraries, apparatus, and museums. The result was a great falling off in attendance. Efforts were made time and again to increase the endowment. Most of the patrons had scholarships, and they did not see the necessity for more money. After years of struggle against odds and difficulties, President McGlumphy resigned.

The work of this institution, however, has by no means been a failure. It has more money now than any school in the church. There are nearly one hundred thousand dollars secured to the university, most of which is productive. There are many friends of the institution who are determined to stand by it. It has graduated some of the best scholars in the church. Its graduates take high rank in the ministry of the denomination. Several of them have been graduated in theology at Lebanon, Tennessee, Union Theological Seminary, New York, and elsewhere. A number of the graduates are prominent teachers in some of the best schools of the country. Hundreds of former students of this institution are useful members of the church. Two of them are missionaries in foreign lands, and two others have been accepted by the Board of Missions for the work in Japan, and are now preparing for their departure to that country.

The institution has always maintained a high standard of scholarship. No school in the church has more conscientiously adhered to the course of study laid down in its catalogue. No student can graduate who does not maintain a high grade of scholarship throughout the entire course.

Among the members of the faculty who have done valuable service in the institution should be mentioned Professor A.R. Taylor, A.M., Ph.D., who is now principal of the State Normal School of Kansas. For ten years he filled the chair of natural sciences with great ability. His enthusiasm in the class-room, his devotion to his pupils, and his accurate learning made him one of the most useful men in the church. As a disciplinarian and a [548] Christian educator he has had but few equals in the denomination. Under his instruction the natural science department became very popular, and his classes were always filled with the most eager and enthusiastic pupils. In 1882 he resigned to take charge of the important institution of which he is the successful president.

Another successful teacher in the university was Professor William Mariner, who for many years was a shining light in Cumberland University. He occupied the chair of Latin four years. His exact and painstaking scholarship and his rigid adherence to college methods did much to elevate the scholarship of this young and promising institution of the church. It was only the want of funds that compelled the board of trustees to accept his resignation. He was a man of great and varied general information, and he inspired young men and women to study that they might reach the high standard of learning to which their preceptor had attained. Since his resignation he has lived in Washington Territory, but in whatever sphere he lives and labors he carries with him the true scholarly spirit, and surrounds himself with an influence which brings him honor and respect. The Rev. B.F. McCord, A.M., Ph.D., filled the chair of Mathematics for fourteen years. He is a man of fine ability, correct literary taste, and excellent scholarship. He was graduated at the State University of Indiana, where he ranked at the head of the large class of which he was a member. In the school-room he was master of his subject. He taught with great enthusiasm and inspired his pupils with a love of study. In the summer of 1887 failing health caused him to seek relief from the work of the class-room in the less wearing duties of a business life.

Among the trustees there are several men whose self-sacrificing devotion to the institution deserves special mention. While the trustees have made mistakes, it will readily be granted by all who know the history of the school that they have been guided by the most unselfish motives in all their transactions. For nearly twenty years Col. Robert B. Latham was a member of the board--during the greater part of the time its president. He was always ready to make any sacrifice in his power to promote the good of the university. Being the best known citizen of the town and the county [549] in which he lived, and still lives, he gave the school a good name throughout the State. His interest in the town and the community was always great, and every enterprise calculated to promote the welfare of his fellow-citizens secured his zealous support. He has always been a firm friend of the cause of education, and has given much wise counsel and years of earnest service to Lincoln University. He gave liberally of his means to secure the location of the school, and was ever ready to lead in any thing calculated to help the university. For years his beautiful and spacious house was thrown open with the most generous hospitality on Commencement occasions to receive the students, the faculty, and their friends. Not being a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, he deserves this honorable mention as a friend and generous benefactor to one of its most important enterprises.

The Hon. William B. Jones, for many years treasurer of the board of trustees, deserves respectful mention for the great interest which he has ever showed in the prosperity of the school. He labored hard for years to keep the finances in good condition. Much of his time was generously devoted to the interest of the college. He has frequently written for the church papers in behalf of the institution. Mr. George W. Edgar, an elder in the Lincoln congregation, has been a member of the board of trustees since the school was first organized. He has given freely of his money in the support of the college, and has been very liberal with his time in looking after the building and grounds. His home has always been open to the friends and patrons of Lincoln University. There are many other persons whose labors have contributed to the prosperity of the institution. It would require more space than can be given to the subject to record the deeds of all who are worthy of special mention. Such men as Samuel C. Parks, James A. Hudson, A.C. Boyd, the Rev. W.C. Bell, and the Rev. F. Bridgman have served as trustees with great fidelity and usefulness.

Among the endowing agents who have from first to last been engaged in working for the college must be mentioned the Rev. J.A. Chase, the Rev. Jesse S. Grider, and the Rev. J.C. Van Patten. They all did good work at various times. The Rev. J.S. Grider acted as agent but one year, but during that time he did a very [550] valuable work. He secured in notes and bequests about thirty-five thousand dollars. One bequest of ten thousand dollars obtained by him has already been realized. It was made by Mr. Alfred Bryan, of Logan county, Illinois, who was for many years an active elder in the congregation known as Sugar Creek.

Lincoln University has been in existence but little over twenty years, but it may be safely said that no school in the church has done a better work in that time. It has graduated in the literary department alone just 186 pupils. These men and women are for the most part members in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and in the General Assembly and our missionary boards, and in all the councils of the church, their influence is felt and acknowledged.

The foregoing sketch of Lincoln University is furnished for this volume by the Rev. D.M. Harris, D.D., Ph.D., who became Professor of Natural Science in that institution in the fall of 1868. He served in that position two years. In the fall of 1871 he was elected to the chair of Greek and Latin. He filled this important position with great ability until 1883. He did much to build up the interests of the institution and to promote thorough classical scholarship among the students. After nearly fifteen years of faithful and valuable service as a member of the faculty, he resigned and accepted his present position as editor of The Cumberland Presbyterian at Nashville, Tennessee.

In June, 1887, President McGlumphy and the entire faculty of this institution resigned. Subsequently A.E. Turner, A.M., Professor of Natural Sciences, was re-elected, and he has resumed the duties of that chair. Theodore F. Brantley was also re-elected to the chair of Greek and Latin, but did not accept it. Albert McGinnis, A.M., was elected Professor of Belles-Lettres, and vice-president, and he is at this time (October, 1887) acting president. Albert T. Davis, A.B., of Hyde Park, Massachusetts, was chosen Professor of Greek and Latin, I.W.P. Buchanan, A.B., Professor of Mathematics.

The full list of teachers in the Literary and Scientific department from the organization of this institution to the present time is as follows: [551]

Presidents and Professors of Mental and Moral Philosophy.--Rev. A. Freeman, D.D., Rev. J.C. Bowdon, D.D., Rev. A.J. McGlumphy, D.D., LL.D.

Professors of Mathematics.--Rev. A.J. McGlumphy, A.M., Rev. B.F. McCord, A.M., Ph.D., I.W.P. Buchanan, A.B.

Professors of Ancient Languages.--Rev. S. Richards, D.D., Rev. D.M. Harris, D.D., Ph.D., William Mariner, A.M., Theodore Brantley, A.M., and Albert T. Davis, A.B.

Professors of Natural Sciences.--J.F. Latimer, A.M., Rev. D.M. Harris, A.M., A.R. Taylor, Ph.B., O.A. Keach, Ph.B., Rev. W.J. McDavid, A.M., Charles R. Krone, A.M., and A.E. Turner, A.M.

Professor of Belles-Lettres.--Albert McGinnis, A.M.

Professors of Elocution.--S.S. Hamil, A.M., Mrs. E.W. Felt, Rev. L.P. Marshall, A.B.

Matrons, and Teachers of English Literature.--Mrs.M.E. Miller, Miss Minerva Lindsey, Mrs. C.E.W. Miller, and Miss S.J. McCord.

Tutors.--J.R. Starkey, A.M., A.H. Mills, A.M., A.E. Turner, A.M., and M.A. Montgomery, A.M.

There are four literary societies connected with the university--the Neatrophean, the Amicitian, the Amasagacian, and Athenian. The first two are for ladies, and the others for gentlemen.

The property and assets of the university consist of:

A campus and buildings worth $60,000

Furniture, library, and fixtures 5,000

Endowment fund invested and otherwise available 60,000

Endowment, good, but not yet available 40,000

Total property and assets $165,000


Soon after the close of the civil war, there seems to have been a general sentiment among Cumberland Presbyterians in Texas [552] that the church ought to have in this State an institution of learning of high order, to supply facilities for the education of the children of the church in the State, and especially for the training of young men preparing for the ministry. Our people have manifested, in every State where they have established churches, their appreciation of thorough education. The pioneers of the church in Texas were not less appreciative and diligent in this respect than had been those of the older States. Before the civil war, three Cumberland Presbyterian colleges were in successful operation in the State, viz.: Chapel Hill, at Daingerfield; Larissa, at Larissa; and Ewing, at La Grange; besides other smaller schools.

It is here noted as a remarkable illustration of unselfish magnanimity that when the proposition was made to establish a central school of higher order, for general patronage, it had no warmer friends nor more ardent supporters than the men who had been managing the several colleges in the State. Brief sketches of the three pioneer colleges already named are here given.

Chapel Hill College was projected by the Marshall Presbytery, in the fall of 1849. A presbyterial committee located it at Daingerfield. At the fall meeting of the presbytery, 1850, a Board of Trustees was appointed, and a charter for a male school was that year obtained. A two-story wooden house was first built, and afterward a two-story house of brick. Prof. Fleming taught a primary school while the first house was in process of erection. The Rev. S.R. Chadick taught the first session in the new building, from February to June, 1852. He afterward had charge of the Preparatory Department, until 1856, when he resigned. The Rev. W.E. Beeson came to the school from Kentucky, March, 1852; and he and Mr. Chadick conducted the school for two years. The catalogue, during this period, shows the attendance of one hundred and seventy pupils, with patronage from Arkansas and Louisiana, as well as Texas. In the fall of 1853, Mr. Beeson was elected president, an held that position until he was elected President of Trinity University, in 1869. The Rev. S.T. Anderson, a graduate of Cumberland University, became Professor of Mathematics in 1855, and served until 1857, when he resigned. S.M. Ward, a graduate of the school, had charge of the Preparatory [553] Department from 1857 to 1860, and was Professor of Mathematics from 1860 to 1865. After 1869, the Rev. W.M. Allen was elected president, and conducted the school a year. Then the Rev. J.B. Renfro had charge until his death. Then the school was closed. From the beginning, the teachers of this school relied on tuition fees alone for their support, and taught free many young men preparing for the ministry, most of whom were also boarded without charge, either by teachers or citizens. Of the preachers educated there, the following are among the living: Benjamin Spencer, D.D., J.A. Ward, D.D., J.S. Patton, W.S. Glass, S.E. Black, and J.C. Blanton. Among the dead are W. Burgess Modrall, C.C. Givens, S.M. Johnston, T.W. Sego, Jerre Shetter, A.W. Johnston, and Y.H. Hamilton. Among the warmest and most efficient friends this school had, was the Rev. S. Awalt; and he has been equally earnest and active in helping forward other enterprises of the church in Texas.

Larissa College, located at Larissa, Texas, had its origin in the generosity of two noble elders, T.H. McKee and Nathaniel Killough, who each gave one thousand dollars to start the enterprise. The institution was chartered as a mixed school in 1855, and placed under the control of the Brazos Synod, with the Rev. F.L. Yoakum at its head. Larissa was a good location, and Mr. Yoakum and the Rev. J.B. Renfro, who was also connected with the school, were excellent educators. The prospects of the institution were flattering until the war. Its last catalogue numbered three hundred and thirty-seven pupils. Many who received training in its classes fill high positions of public trust. After the war, the trustees disposed of the property, and gave the proceeds to Trinity University. Mr. Yoakum had spent many years collecting a geological cabinet, which he donated to the University.

Ewing College, at La Grange, had its origin in the efforts and liberality of the Rev. A.H. Walker, the pastor, and the elders of the church at that place--Hiram Ferrell, W.R. McClellan, and I.B. McFarland. It was chartered by the legislature in 1852, as "The La Grange Collegiate Institute," to be under the care and control of the Colorado Presbytery. In 1854, the Colorado Synod was organized, and by amendment of the charter, the name of the [554] school was changed to Ewing College, and its control transferred to the synod. In 1855, Prof.R.P. Decherd became president, and the school flourished under his management, and promised to become a permanent institution. Its work was stopped by the breaking out of the war. The close of the war found Prof. Decherd in charge of a school at Waco; Elder Ferrell was dead, and McClellan and McFarland had moved to Austin. Neither church nor school was ever revived at La Grange. Prof. Decherd afterward served with success as Professor of Mathematics in Trinity University. He died in 1887.

In the year 1866, each of the three synods of Texas, acting in concert, appointed a committee to consider jointly the propriety of establishing at that time such an institution of high order as the church in the State seemed to demand. The thought of such a school seems to have originated with the Rev. H.F. Bone and the Rev. A.J. Haynes at Corsicana. By them, with other brethren concurring, the proposition was made to the synods simultaneously.

The joint committee, thus appointed, met for consultation at Dallas, in December, 1867. The conclusion was reached that the immediate establishment of such an institution was not only desirable, but entirely practicable, and a report was submitted to the several synods, recommending its early location. It was stipulated that no point should be considered in selecting a location, unless twenty-five thousand dollars had first been raised as a bonus.

On the reception of this report, the synods appointed other committees of four each, to act jointly in selecting a location. In addition to making the location, the committees were instructed to take the steps necessary to put the institution in active operation.

Dallas, Round Rock, Tehuacana, and Waxahachie, each raised the required bonus. The joint committee met first at Tehuacana, November 14, 1868. After examining Tehuacana, the committee visited Dallas and Waxahachie, and most of the members visited Round Rock. They met for final action at Waco, April 20, 1869. After two days of deliberation, Tehuacana was chosen by unanimous vote, and Trinity University selected as the name.

The committee then arranged for opening the school by appointing a committee to procure a charter, naming the trustees, making [555] temporary arrangements to pay teachers, and electing members of the faculty. T.B. Wilson, D.D., was chosen president, and the Rev. W.E. Beeson, the Rev. S. Doak Lowry, and the Rev. W.P. Gillespie, Professors. Agents were appointed to raise permanent endowment in the bounds of the synods, and were authorized to sell perpetual scholarships in the Literary Department for five hundred dollars, and five-year scholarships for one hundred and fifty dollars. The trustees were requested to organize as soon as practicable, and to take steps to put the school in operation by the first Monday in September, 1869. The committee finally adjourned, April 23, 1869, after a session of four days.

The point selected as a location had been previously known as Tehuacana Hills, sometimes Tehuacana Springs. It was not a business point, as it had only one very small trading house; and yet, such were its natural advantages as to water, health, and scenery, and its centrality as to population and territory in the State, that it had, twenty years before its selection by this committee, been in the race with Austin for the permanent seat of government, and was defeated by a very small majority. It is on an eminence or prolonged hill, in a prairie. There are many springs of water coming out on and around this elevation, besides water can be obtained in abundance by wells. The largest of these springs and many of the wells are rarely affected by droughts. Being free from temptations to vice, extravagance, and idleness, it is eminently fitted to be a seat of learning. In the particular of health, it is probably not surpassed in the State.

The bonus given by the friends of Tehuacana for the location, consisted entirely of real estate. Among the items, Maj. John Boyd had donated one hundred and thirty acres on the hill, on which the plot of the town of Tehuacana was afterward made, and on which the University building now stands, and a tract of fourteen hundred acres in the valley a half mile north-west. This last was subsequently sold in lots of twenty acres each, and the proceeds applied to erecting buildings, as were also the proceeds of the sale of lots in the town plot. Also, a company of friends of the enterprise, who had bought fourteen hundred and twenty acres of land, lying a half mile from the present building, donated to the school [556] fifty acres of this tract, on which stood a large wooden residence, with eight rooms. In this house the school was opened in September, 1869, but the patronage soon outgrew the house, and another building became a necessity. The estimates put on the value of the lands donated to secure the location were high. Soon came the times of money stringency, and general shrinkage in values. The amount realized from sales was far short of the original estimates, and the buildings which were erected after the school opened have been paid for in large part by additional donations. In 1871, a new building of stone, with a large chapel and eleven other rooms, was projected, and the Rev. Alpha Young was appointed to manage its erection. In 1873, the school moved into this new building. It cost twenty-five thousand dollars. In 1886, extensive additions to this building were projected, to cost about twenty thousand dollars. On these additions, twelve thousand dollars has already been expended, and when they are completed, this school will have a most commodious building, substantial, and of great architectural beauty.

As the school began without a dollar of endowment, and projected its salaries for teachers at high rates--two thousand dollars for the president, and fifteen hundred dollars for professors--and as money depressions soon came, the trustees have had a long and hard struggle in keeping first-class teachers, erecting buildings, and securing endowment, and at the same time, avoiding debt. But in all these particulars they have succeeded, and the present status of the school is a monument to their caution and skill.

August 13, 1870, the legislature of Texas granted the school a charter, having the following as its most important provisions:

1.--The corporate trustees were nine in number.

2.--To the Board of Trustees was given the direct control and management of the institution.

3.--The several synods of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church of Texas were to have a general advisory supervision of the same.

4.--The board once in each year was required to report to the synods the condition of the institution.

5.--The school was to consist of both male and female departments, and was authorized to establish departments of law, medicine, theology, and other departments.

[557] 6.--All property acquired by this institution was to be held by the. board, in trust for the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Texas, with power to sell and manage the same for the benefit of the institution.

7.--A majority of the board was to constitute a quorum for the transaction of all business except the election or removal of a member of the faculty, which requires the concurrence of at least two thirds of the members of the board. No meeting of the board was to be held elsewhere than at the institution, nor was any member of the board permitted to reside at a greater distance than twelve miles therefrom.

8.--The successors of the corporate trustees were to be appointed by the three synods in Texas, three by each, and to hold office during the pleasure of the synod appointing them.

9.--Any additional synod which might, after the granting of the charter, be organized in Texas, was to have the same rights and privileges, and thus the number of trustees would be increased.

10.--The property owned and held by the institution, being set apart exclusively for educational purposes, was declared exempt from both State and county taxation.

An amendment to the charter in 1877 provided that the number of trustees should be increased to four from each synod, except the Brazos, which was to have five; that one more than half of the trustees should reside within twelve miles of the institution; and that an increase of two for every additional synod which might be organized in the State, should be necessary to constitute a quorum. Since 1877, one additional synod has been organized; hence, the board now consists of seventeen trustees, nine of whom reside within twelve miles of the institution. A quorum at regular meetings is seven, and at called meetings, nine.

Only one man, Judge D.M. Prendergast, of Mexia, has been a member of the Board of Trustees for the whole nineteen years of the history of the institution. He has served the board as president since 1885. It had previously two presidents. The first was J.S. Wills, M.D., who moved from Tennessee to Cotton Gin, Freestone County, Texas, in 1848, and was a ruling elder in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church at that place until his death, which occurred at his home, August 6, 1877. He served as President of the Board of Trustees from its organization to his death.

Judge L.B. Prendergast, second president of the board, was born in what is now Giles County, Tennessee, November 25, 1808.

[558] His mother was a sister of the Rev. Samuel King. He moved to Texas in 1839, and was a ruling elder in the Cotton Gin congregation for many years before and up to the time of his death. He served as president of the board from the death of Dr. Wills, in 1877, to his own death, March 23, 1885.

The following persons have served as teachers in this school:

W.E. Beeson, President, 1869-77.

R.W. Pitman, Acting President, 1877-78.

W.E. Beeson, President, 1878-82.

S.T. Anderson, Acting President, 1882-83.

B.G. McLeskey, President, 1883-85.

L.A. Johnson, Acting President, 1886-87.

L.A. Johnson, President, 1887-.

W.P. Gillespie, Latin and Greek, 1869-77.

S. Doak Lowry, Mathematics, 1869-71.

Mrs. Kate Gillespie, Music, 1869-73.

Mrs. M.E. Beeson, Music, 1869-.

D.A. Quaite, Belles-lettres, 1870-71.

D.A. Quaite, Natural Science, 1871-73.

Wm. Hudson Commercial Department, 1870-83.

Wm. Hudson Natural Science, 1883-.

R.P. Decherd, Mathematics, 1871-77.

V.W. Grubbs, Assistant Com., 1871-72.

Carl Danneberg, Music, 1871-81.

Mrs. Danneberg, Art and Music, 1871-81.

Mrs. M.F. Foster, Preparatory Dept., 1872-74.

Miss S.R. Young, Primary Dept., 1872-86.

D.M. Prendergast, Law, 1872-73.

I.S. Davenport, Natural Science, 1873-76.

R.C. Ewing, Law, 1874-78.

R.A. Shaver, Assistant Teacher, 1875-77.

Mrs. E.B. Boyd, French, 1875-86.

T.M. Goodknight, Natural Science, 1876-77.

S. Richards, Latin and Greek, 1877-78.

R.W. Pitman, Belles-lettres, 1877-78.

R.W. Pitman, Natural Science, 1878-81.

S.T. Anderson, Mathematics, 1877-83.

Miss S.J. McCord, Natural Science, 1877-71.

W.E. Beeson, Theology, 1877-82.

Miss V. Henderson, Primary Dept., 1877-78.

J.H. Gillespie, Com. Dept., 1879-80.

Mrs. M.E. Pitman, Music, 1879-81.

Mrs. Mary Anderson Music, 1880-83.

S.M. Templeton, Adjt. Mathematics, 1881-85.

P.M. Riley, Adjt. Languages, 1881-82.

Miss Georgie Lay, Music, 1881-82.

Miss Bettie Teague, Music, 1882-83.

Miss C. Wolverton, Music, 1883-84.

J.H. Miller, Assistant Teacher, 1883-84.

D.S. Bodendamer, Assistant Teacher, 1888-86.

D.S. Bodenhamer, Mathematics, 1885-.

S.T. Anderson, Mathematics, 1884-85.

J.H. Gillespie, Business College, 1884-88.

J.M. Riggs, Music, 1884-.

Mrs. M.L. Eads, Music, 1884-86.

Mrs. A.M. Riggs, Art, 1884-.

Mrs. D. Beaumont, Elocution, 1884-86.

V.S. Nelson, Penmanship, 1884-86.

W.P. Gillespie, Latin and Greek, 1882-.

E.B. Crisman, Aston Ch., 1886-.

Mrs. Bodenhamer, Art, 1885-.

Miss Lura Bell, English Literature, 1886-.

N.J. Clancy, High school, 1886-.

Miss L. Carothers, Primary Dept., 1886-88.

E.B. Kuntz, German, 1885-.

Miss Bessie Bell, Grammar School, 1887-.

T.B. Wilson, D.D., having declined the presidency, the Board of Trustees, at their first meeting, in 1869, elected Rev. W.E. Beeson president. Under him the school was opened, and he continued president, excepting one year, until his death, in 1882.W.E. Beeson, D.D., was born in Berkley County, Virginia, October 21, 1822. His parents moved to Logan County, Kentucky, when he was a child. There he grew up and became a candidate for the ministry in the Logan Presbytery. He was educated at Cumberland University, graduating in 1849. He was teaching a school near Bowling Green, Kentucky, when called to Chapel Hill College, Texas, in 1852. He was attacked with his last illness [559] while from home, canvassing in the interest of the University, and died at the house of Dr. Craig, near Hillsboro, September 5, 1882.

B.G. McLeskey, D.D., was born near Dresden, Tennessee, July 24, 1834. He was educated at Bethel College, Tennessee. He served as pastor at Brownsville, Paris, and McKenzie, Tennessee, and Sherman, Texas. In 1883 he became President of Trinity University, and served two years. He died at Tehuacana, October 25, 1885. His administration was an eminently successful one.

The patronage increased very rapidly for the first few years, and then declined. This resulted, mainly, from the fact that there were but few schools in the State when this one opened, compared with the greater number which were speedily established as railroads were built and towns and cities grew up. The proportion of ministerial matriculations for the first eleven years was one to every thirty; for the last eight years it has been one to every eleven. This shows a great increase of interest in the thorough education of the ministry; and is probably in large part due to the influence of this school in the State, and to the advantageous arrangements in reduced expenses it is enabled to give students preparing for the ministry.

Almost immediately after the opening of this school, the trustees appointed soliciting agents, and at no period have they failed to have one or more in the field seeking donations in cash, land, and notes for endowment or building fund, supplementing teachers' salaries, selling scholarships, and raising money for various smaller wants of the enterprise.

The following persons have acted as agents: J.H. Wofford, D.W. Broughton, J.B. Renfro, A.J. Haynes, W.D. Wear, F.E. Foster, J.W. Riggins, S.E. Black, E.B. Crisman, and J.W. Pearson.

Very soon after the establishment of this institution, our country experienced the most remarkable shrinkage in values known in its history, causing unusual financial stringency. Thus, during almost the whole history of this institution, it has been compelled to contend with the difficulties resulting from this state of finances. No record is found of its financial condition until the Treasurer's [560] annual report, of 1879, which is recorded with the minutes of the Board of Trustees. Similar records had been kept previously in a separate book, and were lost in a fire some years ago.

According to the report of 1880, the value of the endowment was then $21,501, of which only $2,146 was productive. The largest item included in this estimate was 4,360 acres of land, valued at $8,720. The college building and the lands surrounding it, with furniture, laboratory, and cabinet, were valued at $28,600. The total value of endowment and property, less debt, was $48,231, which represents the proceeds of the bonus given for the location, all the donations of every kind for eleven years, and the sale of about thirty-five scholarships. Most of these scholarships were for twenty-five years.

The financial condition July 1, 1888, is shown in the following exhibit:


Lands, 3,506 acres, worth, say $6,740.80

Notes and Claims 10,940.00

Conditional Notes 2,800.00

Bequests, in shape 29,000.00

Productive Endowment 29,410.25

Total Endowment $78,891.05


University Building and surroundings $40,530.00

Furniture, Pianos, etc. 2,000.00

Laboratory, Cabinet, etc. 2,500.00

Divinity Hall and Furniture 1,841.07

Subscriptions for New Building 1,594.00

Total Property $48,965.07


Total Endowment and Property $127,356.12

Less outstanding claims 750.00

Balance $126,606.12

In this exhibit, the items of notes and claims are of uncertain value.

The record of scholarships sold by this institution was destroyed in the fire heretofore mentioned, and hence the exact number can [561] not be given. During the earlier years, probably more than a dozen perpetual scholarships were sold at the rate of five hundred dollars each, a very few for cash, which was partly consumed in agents' salaries, others for lands, which subsequently proved of little value. A few of these, by a mistake of the trustees, were allowed to be changed into twenty-five-year scholarships, two for one. Also, about twenty twenty-five-year scholarships were sold for cash or land, at three hundred dollars each; likewise, some half-dozen five-year scholarships at one hundred and fifty dollars each. The sale of limited scholarships; the sale of scholarships of any kind for other than endowment purposes, and the allowing the exchange of one perpetual for two limited scholarships, are all crippling mistakes, which the trustees, who began without experience in such things, soon discovered and stopped. During the past eight years, eight of the scholarships have been secured by the school, either by donation or by purchase at low rates; the five-year scholarships have expired, and the comparatively few others still in force are not likely to give any serious inconvenience.

Several of the financial benefactors of this school, who are now deceased, deserve special mention. First among these is John Boyd, who was born at Nashville, Tennessee, August 7, 1795. He moved to eastern Texas in 1835, And located the league of land at Tehuacana in 1836, to which he moved in 1845. He secured the bonus for the location of Trinity University, being himself the chief contributor. He died May 4, 1873.

Thompson Fletcher Fowler was born in Missouri, March 22, 1836, and while yet a lad moved to Texas with his father, an elder of the church, settling in Burnet County. He moved to California in 1861, but returned to Texas in 1873, and settled in Milam County. In 1883, he contributed eight thousand dollars, known as the Fowler Endowment. The interest of this fund is to be used in aiding young men studying for the ministry in Trinity University, in the items of boarding, clothing, and books. Mr. Fowler's idea was that the school would furnish free tuition to such pupils, and he wanted to help as many as possible in their expense account, thus increasing the number who would reap the benefits of the school. He died June 14, 1886.

[562] James Aston was born in Wilson County, Tennessee, October 10, 1804. He was a merchant, doing business in Hardeman County, Tennessee, ten years; in Memphis, Tennessee, two years, and in Coffeeville; Mississippi, thirty-nine years. He moved to Farmersville, Texas, in 1883. In September, 1885, he donated nine thousand dollars in cash, and land and claims in Mississippi, to endow the Aston Chair in honor of his father. He died June 10, 1887. He was a man of strong logical mind and of few words, liberal to the poor and unfortunate, temperate, and physically well preserved to the age of eighty-three.

The Rev. G.N. Morrison was born in Bedford County, Tennessee, July 27, 1825. In 1850, he moved to Benton County, Arkansas, and from there to Texas, in 1864. In the fall of 1886, he and his wife deeded their farm, in McLennan County, Texas, to the endowment, to take effect at the death of the last survivor of the two. He died at home, May 28, 1887. He was a man of great power in the pulpit and in private life. Other deceased benefactors were J.C. McCuiston, of Corsicana, and Mrs. Ann Judson Farris, of Walker County.

Many of the living benefactors of the University also deserve mention. Rev. R.O. Watkins and his sons donated, in 1883, two hundred and fifty dollars, as the first payment on the building and lot for Watkins Divinity Hall, for a boarding-house on the clubbing plan for theological students.

Mrs. M.M. Johnson, the widow of the Rev. James Johnson, who is mentioned on page 376 of this book, is now spending a pleasant old age at Corsicana, Texas. In 1884 she and her four sons contributed five thousand dollars to endow partially the Johnson Professorship of Mathematics.

Of the twelve thousand dollars recently spent in building, a number of persons have contributed as much as five hundred dollars each, and others smaller amounts. These names are all on record in a better and more enduring book than this.




The four leading institutions of learning whose history is sketched in the last two chapters are not the only schools that have grown up under the patronage of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Though this church had its origin among the pioneer settlers of Kentucky and Tennessee, far from literary and commercial centers; though its first members were hardy and simple-hearted backwoodsmen, who gave more attention to the felling of forest trees and the opening of farms in the wilderness than to books; though the scholastic training of many of its first preachers did not meet the requirements of the rigid Presbyterian rule; yet its ministers and people have ever been the friends and promoters of liberal education.

We have seen how efforts to establish schools were joined to the evangelistic and pastoral labors of our first missionaries in Pennsylvania and Ohio. The same thing was true wherever Cumberland Presbyterian congregations grew up. In Indiana and Illinois, in Missouri and Arkansas, as well as in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Texas, our people were pioneers in the work of establishing schools. Cherry Grove Seminary, near Abingdon, Knox County, Illinois, a Cumberland Presbyterian institution, opened its doors to students in 1842, but a little while after the Congregationalists from New England laid the foundations of Knox College in the same county. Spring River Academy was doubtless the first high school ever opened in south-western Missouri. It was founded by Ozark Presbytery, and went into operation under the superintendence of the Rev. J.B. Logan, in November, 1844. Delany Academy flourished at Newburgh, in southern Indiana, before any other [564] school of similar grade had been established in that part of the State. Such pioneer institutions sprang up wherever our people gained a foothold.

It is true that many of these pioneer schools had but an ephemeral career. The methods and policy adopted were not always the wisest. Many of our people did not have a very correct understanding of what was needed in the founding of an institution of learning. But the history of these efforts shows that the first Cumberland Presbyterians did not lack the spirit of education. The report prepared in 1855 by the Rev. S.G. Burney, chairman of the Committee on Education, and adopted by the General Assembly, declares that:

The founders and early friends of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church were disinherited of their church patrimony, and deprived of the benefits of those literacy institutions which they and their ancestry, by their money and prayers, had contributed to establish. These temples of knowledge were closed against them, and against their sons and successors in the ministry. lt is not, therefore, strange that they were not profoundly learned in this world's wisdom. The wonder is, rather, that they were learned at all. What is now considered a demonstration of an increased educational interest, or "waking up," is only the development of a spirit which has always existed. ... The fact is, and probably will not be questioned by any who have inquired into the subject, that the Cumberland Presbyterian Church has not only taken the initiative, but has actually accomplished more for the cause of education in the great valley of the West than any other association whatever, in proportion to numbers and resources.

We have had schools which flourished for a while under the name of colleges, but which never had any endowment, and have long ago ceased to exist. Some of these were supplied with such meager facilities as to make their pretentious titles most inappropriate. But while we should protest against calling every little school a college, we are not to forget that even one or two earnest teachers in a log-cabin may do a valuable work. Every one of these schools, however meager its resources or brief its career, doubtless wrought out some good results. The report on education adopted by the General Assembly of 1871, and signed by Dr. Richard Beard, chairman of the committee, contains these words:

[565] This church commenced, in its ecclesiastical capacity, the work of education in 1826. It has had reverses and disappointments; still much has been done. ... The great want with us in this work has been to give a practical direction to our efforts. We have not had the experience of ages to guide us. We have not had foundations laid by predecessors upon which we could build. We have had to work out our own experience; we have been compelled to lay our own foundations. The wonder is that we have succeeded so well.

If the church could grasp the true theory of graded schools and thorough preparatory academies, and would build them wherever needed, and refrain from assuming for them the titles and prerogatives of colleges, and make each grade tributary to the next higher, all parts of the church would reap immense advantages from such a policy. But if every little town starts its academy, and every academy tries to teach college classes, then we shall never have either college or university. Neither shall we ever have any academies of high reputation. Show me the academy with mixed studies that can stand beside the Phillips Academy, or the Bingham, or the Philadelphia High-school.

The Minutes of the General Assembly show not only that our people have always been enlisted with great earnestness in the work of education, but also that, more than forty years ago, the importance of concentrating the efforts of the church on a few leading institutions, and of building up a graded system of preparatory schools, was recognized and insisted on by our most thoughtful men. Robert Donnell was chairman of the Committee on Education in 1845. The report which he presented to the General Assembly, and which was adopted, declares that it would "greatly enhance the prosperity of the higher institutions ... under the auspices of the denomination to encourage inferior schools throughout the bounds of the church;" and recommends "to the presbyteries, ministers, and all members of the church," a school system which was to embrace: "First, schools in the bounds of every congregation; second, a presbyterial school in the bounds of every presbytery. These," continues the report, "crowned by the university at Lebanon, and the colleges at Princeton, Beverly, and Uniontown, would constitute a system of education worthy of the [566] best efforts of the church." In the establishment of congregational schools our people were advised to cooperate with other Christians. It was recommended that "every congregation and every session should struggle to keep up a school in its bounds at all events; should strive to arouse others to cooperate, but maintain a school under any circumstances." It was suggested, also, that the presbyterial schools might in this way set up an advanced standard of education, "thus, better than by any other method, qualifying the students to enter the university and colleges."

The necessity of adopting this graded system of schools was for several years urged by the successive General Assemblies. From the Minutes we learn that, in 1846, "numerous congregational, presbyterial, and synodical schools" had been planted and were enjoying a high degree of prosperity.

In 1847 the most gratifying progress of the educational work under the auspices of the church was reported. In 1848 the report of the Committee on Education, of which Dr. F.R. Cossitt was chairman, contained these words:

We are gratified to find the cause of education winning the favor and enlisting the efforts of your people almost throughout your bounds. Various and valuable improvements have been made in the institutions heretofore existing, and several new seminaries ha~e been put in operation, and there is cheering evidence to believe that the time is not distant when the recommendation of a former General Assembly will be carried out, and every congregation will sustain its school, and every presbytery and synod its seminary. These preparatory schools, acting in their vocation of fitting students for college and university, will become so many tributary streams supplying the fountains. There can be but little doubt that the system of education heretofore so wisely recommended, and now being in many parts efficiently conducted, will greatly advance the interests of the church.

In 1849 the recommendation favoring congregational and presbyterial preparatory schools was approved and renewed by the General Assembly. The report, which was presented by Milton Bird, chairman of the Committee on Education, says:

We must be faithful to this cause. ... Its importance is such as requires us to be more determined, vigorous, and consecrated in our efforts than ever, in order that it may be increasingly advanced by the [567] up building of our seminaries, the enlarged endowment of our colleges, and the constant augmentation of the number of our students.

But in spite of the wise recommendations of the General Assembly, new colleges, as well as new academies and high schools, soon began to announce themselves. In 1851 the names of three colleges not mentioned before appear in the General Assembly's Minutes; in 1853, three others, one of them a college for young ladies, were added to the list; in 1854, two others, one for young ladies exclusively; in 1855, two more colleges were announced; in 1856, one more; in 1858, one; in 1859, three; and in 1860, two. As early as 1851 the General Assembly began to protest against this tendency to multiply schools with collegiate pretensions. The report adopted that year says:

We suggest the necessity of much prudence and caution, lest in the eagerness to build up colleges the church squander its means, paralyze its energies, and ultimately fail of raising its institutions to the high standard desired. To build a college worthy of the name is the result of years of patient endurance and unremitting energy, requiring the concentration of means and of effort. ... If such an enterprise, when fairly undertaken, fails to succeed, such failure, besides proving disastrous to those immediately concerned. involves the reputation of the church under whose auspices it was commenced.

In 1855 the General Assembly declared that "one college in each State, judiciously located and well endowed, with primary and preparatory schools so placed as to meet the local interests of the church," was fully commensurate with the needs of the denomination. In 1856 the report of the Committee on Education, adopted by the General Assembly, after commending the "zeal shown in the up building of institutions of learning," adds these words:

Yet your committee would respectfully suggest that you commend again ... sound discretion, lest by the multiplication of the places of learning the force of a general educational effort be distracted, and institutions already established be left to be impoverished and paralyzed, to pine and perish. Reason and, sound policy seem most clearly to indicate that it would be the better plan to cluster around our older seats of learning, and cause them, by our patronage and money, fully to meet the wastes of the church.

[568] In 1859 the General Assembly again warned our people against the danger of attempting to build up too many schools, declaring that "it is better to encourage cooperative efforts on the part of our congregations, presbyteries, and synods to establish a few church institutions of the highest order, than to divide means and influence in efforts to establish a large number of small church schools."

We learn from the General Assembly's Minutes that there were, in 1849, "sixteen chartered institutions belonging to the church, together with a number of other male and female high schools under the patronage of, and partly belonging to, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church." In 1856, the report on education, adopted by the Assembly, says: "There are now under the control of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, in whole or in part, and all fully subserving its educational interests, about thirty institutions of learning of high order. Invested in these we find a capital of some $331,725; employed in the same seventy-eight teachers, and under a course of training two thousand four hundred and fifty pupils." The next year "thirty-six or more institutions of learning of high order" were reported, in which there were "about six thousand pupils, taught by one hundred and twelve professors."

In 1860 the names of twenty-nine schools and colleges were reported to the General Assembly. The list included "one university, fifteen colleges, and thirteen academies, institutes, and seminaries," and the report says that there were "various other high schools, taught and patronized by members of our church, yet not controlled by any ecclesiastical body." The names of the colleges reported at that time, not including Cumberland University, were: Waynesburg College, Waynesburg, Pennsylvania; Beverly College, Beverly, Ohio; Ewing and Jefferson College, Blount County, Tennessee; Princeton College, Princeton, Kentucky; Bethel College, McLemoresville, Tennessee; Chapel Hill College, Daingerfield, Texas; Missouri Female College, Boonville, Missouri; Larissa College, Larissa, Texas; Cane Hill College, Washington County, Arkansas; McGee College, College Mound, Missouri; Columbia College, Eugene City, Oregon; Union College, Virginia, Illinois; Union Female College, Oxford, Mississippi; Cumberland Female College, McMinnville, Tennessee; Bacon College, Texas.

[569] Chapel Hill College, Missouri, was for some reason omitted from this list. This school is mentioned in the Assembly's Minutes for 1849 as a chartered institution with several professors. In 1851 it reported one hundred and forty students and nine thousand dollars endowment. It was under the care of Missouri Synod, and the Rev. Robert D. Morrow was its president in 1853. In 1854 it reported two professors and forty students. In 1855 it had "good college buildings free from debt, four instructors, and one hundred students." It doubtless did a good work in its day, but the details of its history have not been obtained.

Of the fifteen institutions enumerated in the foregoing list, Waynesburg College was probably the only one which continued its work without interruption during the civil war; but four of the others still exist as Cumberland Presbyterian schools, viz.: Bethel College, Cane Hill College, Union Female College, and the Cumberland Female College. Efforts were made after the war to revive several of the others; and some of them in these latest struggles, before becoming finally inoperative, did valuable work. To give any thing like a full history of all of our dead schools and colleges would require a volume. Therefore a brief sketch of three of the number, one a coeducational college and two seminaries for young ladies, is all that is here attempted.


Among the Cumberland Presbyterian schools which accomplished an important work, and then, for lack of endowment, ceased to exist, McGee College, College Mound, Macon County, Missouri, was one of the most useful. It was first known as McGee Seminary, and was under the care of McGee Presbytery, but was afterward transferred to McAdow Synod. In the spring of 1853 it reported seventy students. James Blewett, A.B., was then principal. It was opened as a college in October, 1853, and the Rev. J.B. Mitchell became its president. For many long years he and his faithful coworkers toiled here under immense difficulties to train up consecrated workers for the church. In 1859 the faculty was composed of eight members, and the school had two hundred and three students, seventy of whom were females,

[570] The work of this institution was suspended during the civil war. With the beginning of the year 1866 its doors were reopened for the reception of students. In 1867 a full faculty was elected, and Dr. Mitchell resumed his work as president. For seven years this college continued to do a valuable work. In 1869 it was reported as "enjoying a larger prosperity than at any former date." In 1872 it had two hundred and seventy-three students, twenty-nine of whom were preparing for the ministry.

The following list of prominent teachers in this institution is furnished by Dr. Mitchell:


J.B. Mitchell, D.D. President, Rhetoric, Logic and Ethics 1853 to 1874.

J.H. Blewett, A.B. Ancient Languages and Mathematics 1853 to 1855.

Miss B.A. Hagan, M.A. Natural Science and English Literature 1853 to 1856.

S.M. Weedin, A.M. Ancient Languages and Chemistry 1854 to 1856.

G.S. Howard, A.B. Mathematics 1856 to 1861.

A.B. Starke, A.M. Ancient and Modern Languages 1857 to 1861.

Azel Freeman A.M. Natural Science 1858 to 1861.

J.M. Howard A.B. Ancient Languages and Mathematics 1866 to 1867.

J.N. Campbell Natural Science and English Literature 1866 to 1867.

B.E. Guthrie, A.M. Latin and Greek 1867 to 1874.

J.S. Howard, A.M. Natural Sciences 1867 to 1874.

W.J. Patton, A.B. Mathematics 1867 to 1874.

U. Vuielle, A.B. Modern Languages and Hebrew 1868 to 1874.

F.T. Sheetz, A.M. Assistant Latin and Greek 1871 to ----.

J.T. Mitchell, A.B. Assistant Latin and Greek 1872 to 1874.

Miss S.J. McCord, B.S. Assistant Natural Science 1873 to 1874.

Miss M.T. Henderson, B.A. English Literature 1873 to 1874.

This institution had a revival of religion among its students almost every year. After the war it had a system of free boarding for candidates for the ministry, differing somewhat from the Camp Blake plan at Cumberland University. The details are thus given in the catalogue for 1869:

The trustees' of the college furnish rooms and stoves therein to all known to be preparing for the ministry in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Their meals are furnished by families at reasonable rates. The presbyteries sending probationers meet this expense, either by forwarding the money, or by furnishing supplies at cash rates. A committee here receive these funds or supplies, and appropriate them as directed, free of charge.

This institution gave instruction to thousands of pupils who have made valuable men and women, filling positions of honor and usefulness in church and State, and in the different callings and professions. Among those who, from first to last, attended its classes were more than one hundred and thirty young men prepar [571] ing for the ministry in the different Christian denominations. Not less than fifty-three of these are still actively preaching the gospel, while several others have died in the service. Some of the best preachers in our own denomination received their literary training wholly or in part in this school. Among these are the Rev. J.S. Howard, of Hernando, Mississippi, for many years President of Union female College, Oxford, Mississippi; the Rev. D.E. Bushnell, D.D., of Waynesburg, Pennsylvania; the Rev. W.O.H. Perry, President of Odessa College, Missouri; the Rev. H.R. Crockett, of Bethany, Illinois; the Rev. J.E. Sharp, of Marshall, Missouri; the Rev. W.B. Farr, D.D., Ph.D., of Westport, Missouri; the Rev. A.D. Hail, missionary to Japan; the Rev. S.H. McElvain, Fort Smith, Arkansas; the Rev. A.L. Barr, Alton, Illinois; the Rev. B.P. Fullerton, of Kansas City, Missouri; and many others. The work of McGee College as a Cumberland Presbyterian school finally ended in June, 1874.


This school was located at Greenville, Kentucky, and was under the care of Green River Synod. It had property worth forty thousand dollars and in 1858 was in successful operation, with a full corps of teachers, and with good prospects of increasing usefulness. Under several able men its work was carried on for many years. The financial management and support of the school were connected with a joint stock company. Complications arose, and the school was transferred to an individual, and finally, in 1879, under circumstances which fully justified this course, it was transferred by him to a member of the Methodist church.


This was a school for young ladies, and was founded by N. Lawrence Lindsley, LL.D., after he resigned his professorship in Cumberland University. He located his school in the midst of his fine estates near Lebanon, Tennessee, and conducted it from the first on a unique plan. The number of young ladies was limited to just sixteen, and no one was ever received without a thorough previous investigation. The pupils were as thoroughly cut off from outside associations as it was possible for them to be. Dr. [572] Lindsley and his assistants had the whole training of these pupils in their own hands. The largest private library in Tennessee was that of Dr. Lindsley. His correspondence with literary gentlemen both in America and Europe was also extensive. His death and that of his wife put an end to Greenwood Seminary.

Four colleges have already been named which, after suspending their work during the civil war, were revived and continue still in operation. A brief sketch of each of these will be in place here:


The incipient steps toward the founding of this institution were taken by Hernando Synod in 1851. The synods of Mississippi and Union, and afterward, in 1853, the synod of West Tennessee joined in this undertaking, and commissioners were appointed to decide upon a location for the new college. This combination was the result of a proposition from Bethel College that these four synods should enter into an agreement to co-operate in establishing two schools: Bethel College for young men, and a college for young ladies. A school known as Oxford Female Academy, controlled by a local board of trustees, had been chartered at Oxford, Mississippi, in 1838. The Rev. S.G. Burney, D.D., was elected principal of this school in 1852, and still held this position when the synodical commissioners met in 1853. The property belonging to this academy and other valuable donations by the citizens of Oxford were tendered to the new college on condition that it should be located at that town. The commissioners accepted this proposition, and the college was opened in the fall of 1853 with Dr. Burney as president. The institution received its new charter as Un;on Female College, February 4, 1854. In 1856, at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars, a new brick building fifty by one hundred feet, and three stories high, was added to the old one, a two-story brick thirty feet square. With its enlarged field this institution became one of the educational powers of Mississippi, and, before the war, was making some progress in securing endowment. Dr. Burney resigned in 1859 or 1860, and was succeeded by the Rev. R.S. Thomas, D.D., who continued in charge of the institution until its work was suspended by the war.

[573] The school was not re-opened until the autumn of 1865, when the Rev. C.H. Bell, D.D., was elected president. The institution rapidly regained its former prosperity, but owing to the prostration of Southern finances, no effort was made to renew the work of soliciting endowment. It is high time that this work was resumed and pushed to a happy completion from the catalogue of 1870 we learn that "This institution is held by a board of trustees, under a charter from the State, for the benefit of the public, and is authorized to confer the highest educational honors. The property is supposed to be worth about thirty-five thousand dollars."

In 1873 Dr. Bell resigned the presidency, and was succeeded by R.J. Guthrie, A.M., who continued in charge of the school two years. His successor, the Rev. J.S. Howard, A.M., entered upon his duties as president in 1875, and served for twelve years, resigning June, 1887.W.I. Davis, A.M., succeeded him, and is still in charge. Two hundred and twenty-seven young ladies have graduated from this college, and more than one thousand others have here received their education. This institution has struggled with the usual difficulties incident to unendowed schools, and has at times been much involved in debt, but it is now entirely free from incumbrance, and in a better condition financially and otherwise than at any time in its past history. It is now owned and controlled by the synod of Mississippi.


This institution was located at McMinnville, Tennessee, in 1850, and is now under control of Middle Tennessee Synod. Good buildings and handsome grounds, free from debt, were secured, and the first session opened in 1851. Apparatus and library were partially provided, but no endowment has ever been furnished. The location of this institution is one of the most healthful in the world. Romantic scenery adds to its attractions. A strong local support, that indispensable requisite, has always been enjoyed by this enterprise. No college ever succeeds without vigorous backing in the community where it is located. Our church at McMinnville, and our churches in the country around the place are strong enough to make the college feel their presence.

[574] The institution has had five presidents: The Rev. A.M. Stone, 1851 to 1855; the Rev. J.M. Gill, 1855 to 1857; D.M. Donnell, A.M., 1857 to 1871; A.M. Burney, A.M., 1871 to 1880; N.J. Finney, A.M., 1880, to the present time (October, 1887). Its highest prosperity has been reached under the present administration. Additions to the handsome buildings have been recently made. The patronage has always been good, but at no time have its prospects been brighter than at present.

President Finney, is one of the very best graduates Cumberland University ever educated. He is an earnest Christian, a ripe scholar, an indefatigable worker.


Bethel College was organized in 1851, and has done valuable work for the Church. Two interesting and precious facts connected with the inner life of this institution deserves special mention. The first is the intense religious interest which has been mingled with its educational work. Revivals of great power almost every year, bringing the pupils into the army of Christ, have been led and fostered by the faculty. As one of these seasons for protracted meetings approached, the young Christians in the college by mutual agreement each took an unconverted friend or comrade with him to secret prayer. Nearly all these comrades were led to Christ before the meetings closed.

The other special feature of the work of Bethel College is connected with the struggles of young men who had no money. The faculty and the surrounding community adopted their own peculiar method of encouraging this class of students. Their method was not to give the boys money, but to show them how to get along with little, and earn that little themselves. Poor students were encouraged to live in the "camps" or cabins which had been erected on the ground near the college building, where the camp-meetings were held. These students did their own cooking; work was given them so as to enable them to earn wages while going to college. The students who supported themselves in this way, not only stood as high in the respect of the community as the wealthiest, but often far higher.

[575] The Rev. J.M.B. Roach roomed in one of these camps, preparing his own meals, and serving as college janitor. He was honored by the college and by the whole community above the very wealthiest students, and he deserved it. Though poor he was never a beneficiary; and his brief career after he graduated--alas, so brief!--was as heroic and as independent as was his life in Bethel College. He was not the only noble graduate of that institution. Its alumni in all parts of our denominational field are efficient and honored laborers for the Master. This school at first admitted only young men and boys to its classes, but is now a coeducational college.

There is a lesson from the experience of Bethel College about concentration. When some good brethren of West Tennessee Synod proposed to establish this institution, others opposed it on the ground that the church already had in Tennessee one college for the education of young men. These objectors were, however, outvoted, and the new enterprise was inaugurated. In a short time a small fragment of West Tennessee Synod, less than a presbytery, opened another school with a collegiate name, right in the field of Bethel College, using the very same arguments which had been used in favor of establishing that institution. Then the Bethel men became eloquent in their pleading for concentration, and sent special agents to Hernando and Mississippi Synods to try to dissuade them from a scheme which they were discussing looking toward the establishment of a college for young men. The agent sent to one of these synods succeeded in effecting an agreement by which the matter was compromised, and the founding of the rival college prevented. That compromise has continued until the present time, from 1853 to 1887.

Bethel College had one regular graduate at the end of its first collegiate year. There were six in its senior class the second year, and in the years following the classes continued to grow. Before the war this school had the best telescope to be found in any of our colleges. While the great conflict was raging, some soldiers carried this instrument off to the camps, believing that they had captured a brass cannon! When railroads drew the town, McLemoresville, away from the college, it pulled up stakes and moved to McKenzie, Tennessee, where it still continues its work.

[576] It is said that the first president of this institution, the Rev. J.N. Roach, used to employ the switch as an instrument of discipline, not sparing even young men. He was regarded by the trustees as a master disciplinarian. But when he used the switch he often took the pupil with him into the woods, where he would pray with him awhile, and then whip awhile. After whipping and praying had alternated in one case for some time, he appealed to the student, asking, "What more can I do for you?" The answer was, "I think you would better pray again."

This president practiced the most rigid system of espionage on his pupils. Many a night he would be out nearly all night, watching to catch the boys in their mischief. He required the professors to take night and night about with him in these vigils. Whatever may be said against such a method of discipline, it was certainly popular in that community.

The succession of presidents in Bethel has been: the Rev. J.N. Roach, A.B., the Rev. C.J. Bradley, the Rev. Azel Freeman, D.D., the Rev. Felix Johnson, D.D., the Rev. B.W. McDonnold, D.D., the Rev. J.S. Howard, A.M., the Rev. W.W. Hendrix, D.D., W.B. Sherrill, A.M., the Rev. J.L. Dickens, A.M. This institution now has two hundred and thirty students enrolled; sixteen of these are preparing to enter the ministry.


As has been seen in a former chapter, efforts to establish an institution of learning on Cane Hill, Arkansas, were begun by our people as early as 1834. As there were then no State schools, all educational enterprises were carried on by personal effort. The influence of several private schools, conducted by teachers of good attainments, gave impetus to the educational spirit already among

many others, they supposed that a building a little better than the ordinary school-house, with two or three educated teachers, would constitute a college. Accordingly a brick house was built, and in 1852 a charter was secured from the legislature, and Cane Hill College was opened at Boonsboro, Washington County, Arkansas.

This school was put under the care of the Arkansas Synod, and [577] the Rev. Robert M. King, of Missouri, was elected president. He was assisted by Prof.S. Doak Lowry. After laboring efficiently for several years, Mr. King resigned, and moved back to Missouri. Professor Lowry was then in charge of the school, and was assisted by Prof. James H. Crawford and Prof. Pleasant W. Buchanan. An effort was made to raise endowment by scholarships, and the Rev. W.G.L. Quaite was appointed endowing agent. He secured in donation notes and scholarship pledges several thousand dollars, but the wreck and ruin wrought by the war, which soon followed, rendered all these utterly valueless.

Before the war a new building, worth about six thousand dollars, was erected. In March, 1859, the Rev. F.R. Earle, of Greenville, Kentucky, accepted the presidency, and was formally inaugurated in the following June. He found the college in good working order. At the close of the collegiate year, in June, 1859, two young men, S.H. Buchanan and J.T. Buchanan, were regularly graduated, receiving the first diplomas ever issued by the college. At that time, also, the first catalogue was issued.S.H. Buchanan was employed as tutor for the next session. In June, 1860, Prof Lowry resigned. The Rev. W.P. Gillespie was afterward elected to fill the vacancy. The school prospered until 1861. Then came the war, by which its work was suspended. The college buildings, with a valuable little library, and some apparatus, were completely destroyed by fire in November, 1864.

One house belonging to the college, and formerly used as a boarding-house for young preachers, escaped the flames. After the war closed the president returned, and began to teach and preach in this building. In 1868 a new frame building, worth about five thousand dollars, was erected on the old foundation, and in September the president, assisted by Prof. James Mitchell, opened school in this new house. In September, 1869, Prof.J.P. Carnahan was added to the teaching force. In 1874 Prof. Mitchell retired, and accepted a more lucrative position in the State University. Prof. Harold Bourland was employed to fill the vacancy. He remained, however, for only one session.

In 1875 the trustees resolved to admit pupils of both sexes and the Rev. H.M. Welch was chosen as principal of the department for [578] young ladies. In 1879 Prof Welch retired. In the four years following, Mrs. Earle, Miss Welch, Miss Moore, and Mrs. Whittenberg were employed as teachers whenever the patronage demanded it.

In 1883 Prof Carnahan retired, having taught fourteen years. The president then had entire control of the work until 1885, when he, too, resigned, and the Rev. J.P. Russell was called to take charge. He taught two terms and a half In the second session of his administration the college building was burned. In this emergency the Methodists of the village generously tendered the use of their church, and this, with a small dwelling-house rented for the occasion, furnished room for the school, and the work went on.

After the resignation of Mr. Russell, Dr. Earle again undertook the labors and responsibilities of the work. In 1886 a new building on a new foundation was erected. This is better than either of the former buildings. In 1887, the president, assisted by two good teachers, opened school in the new building, with a good patronage and a fair promise of success. Excepting the two and a half sessions taught by Mr. Russell, and the vacation enforced by the civil war, President Earle has been in charge of the school from March, 1859, until the present time. In all that time he has been the only pastor of the congregation worshiping in the college chapel. Within this period thirty-four young men and young women have graduated. Of these all but three are living, and are doing good work, several of them as ministers. A large number of students who did not finish the college course have gone forth from this school to their life work. The institution still lives. It has property worth at least eight thousand dollars. It is situated, however, right under the shadow of a heavily-endowed State university, which furnishes practically free tuition, and therefore labors at a disadvantage.

The limits of this volume will not permit the introduction here of the history of all the schools founded by Cumberland Presbyterians since the close of the war, and now doing a good work. A brief notice of three or four of them is all that can be attempted.


This school was founded by W.E. Ward, D.D., in 1865, who began the work when the country round him was still covered with [579] the ruins the war had made. He had visited all the principal colleges for young ladies in America, thoroughly acquainting himself with modern methods. He made a brave beginning, and soon attained the highest rank as an educator. A long-tried son of the church, and giving the most liberal advantages to the daughters of its ministers, he commanded the hearty cooperation of our people in this private enterprise. From the first the school took high rank, and still maintains it. Over two hundred teachers have received their education at this institution. While laboring in this school, and securing its great success, Dr. Ward has been alive to the best interests of the church, taking an active part for over fifteen years as a member of our Board of Publication, as well as in the building up of our church in Nashville. The seminary is now in the prime of its career, and no doubt will go on to a greater success. It teaches one valuable lesson--that great enterprises must have time and patience, and a head to work out, through long years, the consummation they set out to make. The first year this school had one hundred and eight pupils. The patronage steadily increased, until in 1883 the number enrolled was three hundred and fifty-four. Its largest graduating class, that of 18841885, numbered fifty-six. The total number of graduates sent forth by this school up to 1887 was eight hundred and eighty.(32)


This school was founded by the Rev. J.L. Cooper, just after the war. It is located in Lauderdale County, Mississippi. Though private property it is regarded as one of our very useful institutions. Without any high pretensions, it goes steadily and earnestly on in its work of usefulness. The aim of Mr. Cooper was to establish an institution according to his own ideas, and place it out of the reach of contaminating influences. In carrying out his plan he [580] followed the example of N. Lawrence Lindsley, LL.D., of Greenwood Seminary, and placed his academy in the center of his own large area of land, so that he could control every lot and every settlement upon the premises. He has carried forward this enterprise successfully. His corps of teachers is always full, and the patronage of the school always about equal to the number it is able to accommodate. Of the results of co-education, after a pretty thorough test, Mr. Cooper speaks thus:

We have tried our plan of a male and female school for three years, and success has crowned our efforts thus far. Here brothers and sisters meet in the same chapel at roll-call and at prayers, after which the sister takes her seat in the study hall, and the brother retires to his boarding room. When the bell calls them to recitation, they again meet and recite to the same teachers; and, thus, all the stimulants to neatness of dress, purity of language, ease of manner and address, and high intellectual endeavor, growing out of contact with the other sex under wholesome restraints are secured. By having separate boarding-houses, and by holding the reins of government firmly, yet kindly, we find the school much more easily controlled than either a male or female school separate.

Several of our best living ministers were educated mainly at Spring Hill; some of them in the same classes with their wives, for married preachers are still thronging all our schools.


Though it has only a modest name, this institution teaches a full college course. It was established by East Tennessee Synod, in 1869, at Loudon, Tennessee. It has had a very respectable faculty of real scholars. It has aimed to secure endowment, but its field is too circumscribed to give large hopes of success. Amid beautiful scenery, with historic surroundings, in ample buildings, the school presents a most fascinating exterior. Of its inner life the writer has no information.


The church in Missouri suffered a great loss by the closing of McGee College, in 1874. But our people did not become dispirited. It was decided to resume educational work and to profit by the disasters of the past. Several valuable schools had been lost by the [581] want of permanent endowment, hence the synods of the State agreed to co-operate in raising one hundred thousand dollars as a permanent endowment fund, and not to open another college until that amount should be secured, this being considered a safe nucleus. The work of securing money has been going steadily forward for several years, and at this time it is believed that the one hundred thousand dollars has been fully provided for by the educational commission of the co-operating synods. The contemplated institution will, therefore, no doubt be founded in the near future.

Notwithstanding this action of the synods looking toward the founding of one central college for Missouri, several schools, con- trolled mainly or entirely by Cumberland Presbyterians, have been kept in operation in the State. Stewartsville Seminary, a private enterprise, under the charge of the Rev. W.O.H. Perry, had since 1863 been doing a good work. In 1879 it was chartered as Stewartsville College, and in the years following it sent forth about twenty graduates. On account of the loss of its buildings by fire, its work was, in 1887, brought to an end. Prof. Perry has recently taken charge of Odessa College, a school established by the citizens of Odessa, Missouri. Ozark College, at Greenfield, in the southwestern part of the State, belongs to Ozark Presbytery, and has grown into an institution of considerable importance. The Rev. A.J. McGlumphy, D.D., LL.D., formerly president of Lincoln University, Illinois, has recently taken charge of this school.


As so many of our colleges have committed themselves to cheap scholarships, and as circumstances in the past compelled the writer of this history to make an exhaustive investigation of all the questions connected with this plan for securing endowment, it may not be improper to give some of the general conclusions reached in that investigation.

The scholarship plan strikes a fatal blow at the only dependence any unendowed college has for support. Tuition fees may keep up a faculty for a little season, but for an unendowed college to adopt a scheme which reduces or destroys tuition fees is suicidal. The scheme of limited scholarships aims at endowing the college [582] by defrauding three generations of teachers. "If we can only struggle through the limited period, then we will have a safe endowment." Yes, if--but O what a long and fraudulent if it is! "If we can only find professors to teach for us without adequate pay for a few years, then all the scholarships will have expired and we shall have a safely invested endowment." As respectable and competent professors can not be secured without pay, the few years must be struggled through with such teachers as will work on less than one fourth an adequate salary. In some cases, long before the limited period expires the institution dies. In other cases the trustees save its life by a breach of trust--using the principal of these scholarships to retain the faculty. In still other cases the principal is so reduced by agent's fees, losses on investments, and other processes, that the institution finds itself bound to teach, without pay and without endowment, as many students as are likely ever to seek instruction within its walls. It then repudiates its scholarships, having no alternative left. By this process so many of the real friends of the institution are alienated that all prospects for real endowment are sadly diminished. Even the voluntary surrender of these scholarships, in view of obvious necessities, lessens the prospects of securing real endowment afterward.

In well-known cases a large number of scholarship claims have been bought up at low rates by trustees residing near the college. Though the original form of these scholarships did not allow them to be rented, yet these trustees, being the law makers of the institution, and having now a private interest to serve, have met together and enlarged the privileges of these claims so that they could be rented for a session at a time. Then these trustees, being on the ground, have underbid the faculty for the patronage of such students as would have paid the highest tuition!

The scholarship scheme appeals to wrong motives. It goes to men with offers and inducements of a financial character. They are asked to make an investment of money with an eye to future profits, not as a gift to the blessed Lord. All the high motives which influence earnest Christians to liberality and self-sacrifice--love for church and the ministry, love for the Master and the souls [583] for whom he died--are sunk into the low, sordid hope of making a profitable investment of a few hundred dollars. No Abbot Lawrence will ever be developed among us by these sordid appeals. To the mistaken schemes for securing endowment by cheap scholarships is it chiefly due that no very large donations have ever been made by any one man to any of our colleges.

Let two agents start side by side, one to work for a college which never appeals to sordid motives, which asks only for unencumbered endowment, and the other for an institution which has adopted the plan of cheap scholarships; and, other things being equal the former will secure far more money than the latter. The difference will grow immeasurably great if the former agent represents a college which is out-and-out and forever all for Jesus, and justly bases all its appeals for help on love to Christ's kingdom; while the other represents men, corporations, or towns, which have private axes to grind while pretending to ask assistance in the name of the sacred cause of religion.

The church educates its members by the methods it adopts. The agents whom it sends forth to solicit money are educators. Under those perverted methods employed in securing endowment funds through scholarships, and by kindred schemes for raising money for missions, or to sustain the work in our congregations, we have encouraged a species of giving which is in many cases a sham and a cheat. There are those who think themselves the most devoted Christians on earth, who have not learned the first lesson in consecration and self-denial.

The scholarship evil is but one of the many substitutes which men are prone to adopt instead of the divine plan of raising money for the Master's kingdom. Some of these substitutes might be innocent enough in themselves if they were not used to crowd out God's own appointed method of training a church to give systematically and from principle.

Is there no supreme love to Christ? Is there no heart so full of devotion to him that its utmost possible gift would be gladly bestowed, and which weeps bitter tears because it has no more to offer? Once an agent of one of our colleges was accosted by the wife of a wealthy man. Her husband was not a Christian, and [584] though he controlled vast estates, he dealt out money to his wife with a sparing hand. When she was alone with the agent she said to him: "My heart is nearly breaking because I can not do something for my Savior through your institution. I believe that work is sacred to my Redeemer, but I have only one thing in the world which I am at liberty to give you without asking my husband: that is my diamonds. I have a full set that cost a large sum. I want the Savior to accept the poor little offering, and use it in training men to preach the gospel." That was giving to Jesus. "O si sic omnes."




Four subjects which belong to more than one period of this history have been reserved for this special chapter. They are Publication, Newspapers, Revision, and Temperance.


Cumberland Presbyterians manifested very early their appreciation of the printing-press. The founders of this church, before the organization of its first presbytery, sent forth to the world, "The Remonstrance of the Council," an "Address to the Christian Reader," and probably other short publications. The first official document issued by our people was probably the "Circular Letter," published in 1810, by which the church announced and vindicated its own existence. Old Cumberland Synod at its first meeting, held in October, 1813, at Beech meeting-house, Sumner County, Tennessee, appointed a committee to prepare a complete account of the rise, history, and doctrines of Cumberland Presbytery, to be published in Woodward's third edition of Buck's Theological Dictionary. This account was accordingly prepared and published.

When the synod of 1814 adopted the Confession of Faith, Catechism, and Discipline, Finis Ewing and Hugh Kirkpatrick agreed with the synod to print the book at eighty-seven and one half cents per copy, "upon good writing paper, neatly bound and lettered." It is not certain that this contract was ever carried out. The Confession was probably not printed until seven years later.

[586] The oldest copy now known to be extant was printed at Russellville, Kentucky, in 1821, by Charles Rhea. This was the first book ever issued by Cumberland Presbyterians.

For the first ten or fifteen years of the church's existence, its preachers were too intent on bringing sinners to Christ to think of ecclesiastical machinery; but in course of time they began to think more of the equipments of the church. The first step looking toward a publishing department was taken by the synod in 1825. In adopting the plan of old Cumberland College, the synod provided that the commissioners should be authorized to connect with it, if they thought expedient, a printing office, to publish a "periodical paper," books, tracts, etc. This was not deemed expedient however.

The aspirations of the young church seem to have been kindled in a number of directions about this time. The synod at its meeting in 1823 required each presbytery to report its history to the synod. All of the twelve presbyteries, except two, complied; and these documents were filed with the clerk of the synod, and the presbyteries were ordered to continue their reports. In 1824 the synod appointed a committee to collect materials for a church history. In 1825 it made arrangements for publishing the lectures which Finis Ewing had delivered in his school in Missouri. A committee was appointed to secure from the records of the Presbyterian Church the history of the Cumberland Presbyterian preachers who had been connected with that church. It also appointed a committee, consisting of Samuel King, Robert Donnell, and James B. Porter, to compile a hymn book. This committee made the compilation and by authority published the book, and sold six thousand copies; ultimately, in 1848, the plates of this hymn book, with the committee's debts, were transferred to the Board of Publication.

The Assembly of 1845, carrying out the spirit of resolutions adopted in 1843, provided for the committing of its business transactions to the care of boards. A Board of Publication was created, called a "Publishing Association." A constitution was adopted, prescribing its powers and duties, and making it a sort of stock company. The members of the board were Richard Beard, Milton [587] Bird, H.A. Hunter, Lee Roy Woods, J.F. Wilkins, Wm. Miller, James M. Rogers, and Alonzo Livermore. It seems to have been a cumbersome piece of machinery; and was never called together even for organization until about two years after its creation, and the very day before the Assembly abolished it. The Assembly of 1847 appointed a simple Committee of Publication, consisting of five members, the Rev. Milton Bird, the Rev. Laban Jones, and Ruling Elders T.E. McLean, A.M. Phelps, and James L. Stratton, and instructed them to procure a charter of incorporation. This board located its work at Louisville, Kentucky, where Milton Bird lived, and who sooner or later was president, corresponding secretary, publishing agent, book editor, and salesman.

The business of the board was carried on at Louisville, from 1847 to 1858. A general statement of its history during this period has been given on pages 313-316 of this volume. Only a few details will be added. During the years 1848 and 1849, about $2,900 was donated to it, and the sales amounted to about $1,400. In 1850 Dr. Bird resigned as publishing agent, and the Rev. Lee Roy Woods was appointed in his stead. After this the donations dropped down to a few hundred dollars per year, and the main dependence was upon sales. Up to 1853 the total donations were reported at $3,129.76, and the assets then amounted to $3,725.62, showing an increase of $595.86. The agent was paid $500 for five sixths of his time. The printing was done by contract. Difficulty was experienced in getting frequent meetings of the board, a quorum not living in Louisville. Complaints were made by several General Assemblies because the board failed to report fully or in due time, and, on one occasion, because it did not report at all. A memorial from the Pennsylvania Synod was presented to the Assembly of 1850, praying a removal of the "Book Concern" to a place farther eastward. The prayer was refused. It is quite remarkable that two reports of the board, doubtless written by Dr. Bird, announce business principles whose soundness it has required years of sad experience to enable our own and other churches to appreciate. He condemned the extending of credit and the contracting of debts. He opposed the fixing of too low prices on the books, the clamor to the contrary notwithstanding. He protested [588] against the keeping up of depositories at the risk and expense of the board, and favored, instead, agencies conducted by the presbyteries or individuals. He opposed changes in the location of the board, and recognized the need of a book editor, and the necessity of paying for manuscripts. The books then most needed were, in his opinion, a treatise on our theology, a church history, biographical sketches of our ministers, children's books, and doctrinal and practical tracts.

But all of this good preaching against the credit system was followed by some very bad practice on the part of somebody. By 1854 the board had become largely indebted to its printers, Morton & Griswold, Louisville, Kentucky. This debt, according to the board's statement, was more than $2,000. There was due on sales of books for 1853, $856, and for 1854, $1,042--about one third of the entire amount of the sales. The board became alarmed and reduced the salary of the agent, and he resigned. The Rev. Jesse Anderson was appointed in his stead.

The Assembly of 1854 gave some very pointed orders about reporting, and abstaining from the credit system. As measures of relief, it recommended the employment of soliciting agents and colporteurs, and an increase in the price of the books. It recommended further that none but an experienced book-keeper should be appointed agent. The board's report for that year is not clear, but the Assembly's committee reported the assets at about $4,500, and the debts about $2,500. A committee of three was appointed to audit the books of the board. Resignations became frequent about this time. The number of the members of the board was increased to seven. There was no improvement, however, in the financial results, and the Assembly of 1857 passed a resolution to wind the business up. Thus ends the first period of the board's history. Its assets at this time, as reported to the Assembly of 1858, amounted to $4,913.88. In this estimate, however, were included notes and accounts due the board, amounting to $2,795.22, worth not more than fifty cents on the dollar. The remainder of the assets consisted of plates, books, and a small amount of cash. The liabilities amounted to $1,189.44. The actual net assets were therefore supposed to be about $1,310.00. During that period [589] there had been published about thirty thousand volumes, consisting largely of hymn books and Confessions of Faith. The sales had amounted to about $11,000. The books of the church consisted of the Hymn Book, Social Harp, Confession of Faith, the Manual, Ewing's Lectures, Donnell's Thoughts, Guide to Infant Baptism, Infant Philosophy, and A Commentary on the Sixth Chapter of Hebrews.

The General Assembly of 1858, which convened at Huntsville, Alabama, appointed a special committee on publication, including some of its best men. They were Richard Beard, chairman, R. Burrow, M.B. Feemster, H.B. Warren, R.L. Caruthers, A.J. Baird, Milton Bird, and Isaac Shook. In accordance with the recommendations of this committee, a complete re-organization of the publishing work of the church took place. A permanent "Committee of Publication" was provided for, to consist of three practical business men, known to be devoted to the interests of the church, and "located contiguous to each other." This committee was to appoint a general agent, and require him to give bond. It was instructed "to adopt all necessary means" to raise money, "by subscription or otherwise," to carry forward the work of publication. The agent was to be paid a sufficient salary to justify him in giving as much time as was necessary for the vigorous prosecution of the work. The committee was not to involve itself in debt or extend its business beyond the means under its control. The members were to be subject to removal by the General Assembly. The committee was to have power to fill vacancies in its membership, occurring between the meetings of the Assembly, subject to the confirmation of the next Assembly. It was instructed to secure a charter of incorporation. Its location was to be determined by a committee of seven, who were to receive propositions from various places with the view of establishing a general book depository and store, and ultimately, if the prospects should justify, "a house of publication." The men appointed to constitute this permanent committee were Elder Andrew Allison, the Rev. W.E. Ward, and the Rev. Wiley M. Reed.

The committee was located at Nashville, Tennessee, and the Rev. Wiley M. Reed was chosen its chairman. The Rev. W.S. [590] Langdon was appointed general agent. He went to Louisville and took charge of the assets. All the stereotype plates, except those of the catechism were lost in the manner stated on page 315 of this history. The assets removed to Nashville consisted of the plates of the catechism, books valued at $641 and notes and accounts, which, after paying the debts, yielded about $900. In 1860 the board was chartered by an act of the legislature of Tennessee. One thousand dollars was borrowed to publish the hymn book, which had been revised by a committee consisting of the Rev. A.J. Baird, the Rev. J.C. Provine, and Elder N. Green, Jr., appointed by the Assembly of 1858. The lenders of this money were the Hon. Robert L. Caruthers, Judge N. Green, Sr., the Hon. Horace H. Harrison, the Rev. Carson P. Reed, John Frizzell, Esq., and others whose names can not now be ascertained. Most of the money thus loaned was subsequently donated to the board. E. Waterhouse, Sr., donated the money with which the Confession of Faith was stereotyped.

The publishing work of the church was suspended by the war till 1863, when it was transferred to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Of the publishing committee appointed at that place, Joseph Pennock was made chairman, and the Rev. S.T. Stewart, the publishing agent. The assets, when removed from Nashville, amounted to $5,892.25, less debts amounting to $2,254.69. A new committee was appointed in 1865, consisting of the Rev. I.N. Cary, the Rev. S.T. Stewart, and Alexander Postley. The business was for a time under the management of Mr. Stewart. The printing and selling were afterward done on commission by Davis, Clark & Co., of Pittsburg. This arrangement was continued until the work was again transferred to Nashville. This was done by order of the Assembly, which met at Memphis, in 1867. The Rev. A.J. Baird, the Rev. L.C. Ransom, and Ruling Elder D.C. Love, were then appointed the members of the board.

The Assembly had recommended that a book editor and publishing agent should be employed, who should be ex officio a member of the board. It also appropriated to the publishing work $2,460 from the interest on the Finley Bequest. This, added to the assets received from Pittsburg, made the total resources [591] $5,217.74. The Rev. J.C. Provine, D.D., was chosen book editor and publishing agent. The receipts from sales during ten months were $6,971.24. Although the General Assembly had passed a resolution calling the attention of the presbyteries to the necessities of the board, and requesting them to have collections taken up in the congregations for the cause of publication, yet the donations for the entire year amounted to only twenty dollars. The expenditures for the ten months were just equal to the donations and the receipts from sales. The next Assembly re-adopted the "quarterly system" of collections. During the following year only thirty-five out of twelve hundred congregations took up collections for the cause of publication--ten of them in Missouri, and nine in Tennessee, and not exceeding three in any other State. The total donations were $391.75. This, with the receipts from sales, amounted to $9,807.13. Thus the net profit for the year was a little more than $380.

The report of the board to the Assembly of 1869 set forth in appealing terms the need of more books for the church, and the need of more money with which to produce them. Attention was called to the board's condition of absolute dependence on other publishing houses for its printing. The Assembly resolved to raise fifty thousand dollars to place the enterprise on a firmer and broader basis. It also increased the number of members composing the board to five. In 1869, Dr. Provine resigned his position, and W.E. Dunaway was elected publishing agent. The report to the Assembly of 1870 showed a marked increase in donations, sales, profits, and assets. The appointment of an agent to raise the fifty thousand dollars was recommended. A store was opened January 1, 1871, for the purchase and sale of religious and literary books, in connection with the sale of the church's own publications. Rev. T.C. Blake, D.D., was employed in 1871 as financial agent to raise the fifty thousand dollars. Exclusive of his compensation and expenses, he secured $7,107.47. By permission of the Assembly of 1873, this money, with accrued interest, was used for the purposes of publication, with the understanding that a certain portion, supposed to have been contributed expressly to build or buy a publishing house, should be appropriated, with interest, to that purpose, [592] whenever a sufficient sum was secured. The treasurer still holds the agent's notes for the same.

In August, 1872, the Rev. M.B. DeWitt, D.D., was made soliciting agent and book editor, and became editor of the Sunday School periodicals, and of the Theological Medium. He continued his editorial work in these several departments until the fall of 1879, when he resigned, and other arrangements were made.

During the year 1872 the board purchased of Dr. T.C. Blake the Sunday School Gem and the Theological Medium for $2,500, the board filling out the unexpired subscriptions of each. As early as 1851 a memorial from Mackinaw Presbytery had called the attention of the General Assembly to the necessity for a Sunday School paper, and of a missionary paper. The committee on publication to whom the memorial was referred, reported favorably, but the whole subject was referred to the next Assembly. When the next Assembly met, no action was taken in regard to this matter. The Gem had when purchased 15,000 subscribers, and the Medium 1,180. The number of subscribers to the latter diminished during the succeeding year to 525, and in 1879 it had ceased to be self-sustaining. Then the board, by order of the Assembly, filled out its unexpired subscriptions and donated this quarterly to the theological faculty of Cumberland University. The subscriptions to the Gem increased during the year 1873 to 24,000. Its patronage has since been divided with Our Lambs, the publication of which was commenced by the board in 1877, and both together have now (1887) a circulation of about 35,000.

Prior to 1874 the church never owned a newspaper. Once, on condition of being allowed to appoint the editors, it made a private newspaper its organ, but left the ownership still in private hands. After a very unsatisfactory experience in pursuing this plan, the whole newspaper business was again left to private enterprise. Several evils, however, seemed to be inseparable from this system of independent church journalism. At some periods newspapers multiplied beyond the prospect of support, and their quality often deteriorated in proportion to the increase of their number. There were frequent controversies and rivalries among them, and at times some of them were arrayed against leading enterprises of the [593] church. Owing to lack of financial support, however, many of these publications were short-lived, and it happened not infrequently that two or more of them were forced to consolidate.

In the Assembly of 1852, the Rev. J.N. Roach read a paper on the subject of a religious journal under the control of the Assembly.

The Assembly of 1858 adopted a resolution favoring a consolidation of all the church papers owned and published by individuals. In 1868 a memorial from Princeton Presbytery was presented to the Assembly, asking that the Board of Publication should be directed to begin the publication of a religious journal for the church. The report of the Committee on Publication, adopted by the Assembly, approved the proposed step, but did not recommend immediate action because of the board's lack of money. Another memorial on this subject was presented to the Assembly of 1873 by Bell Presbytery, and, in its report to that Assembly, the board expressed the opinion that an effort should be made to bring about a consolidation of the existing newspapers. The report of the Committee on Publication, adopted by the Assembly, favored the measure, setting forth the reasons therefor at considerable length. Expressing a desire that the church should not enter into competition with the owners of the existing papers, it recommended that the board should be "instructed to negotiate with them, and, if possible, procure their interests in their respective publications at reasonable rates."

To the Assembly of 1874 the board reported that it had been found impracticable at that time to purchase the papers then in existence. That Assembly adopted a report, which said: "It is the sense of this General Assembly that fair terms should be offered to the proprietors of the present weekly church papers, not to be less than the estimate fixed by disinterested parties mutually chosen, and should the terms thus offered be not accepted, the board will report to the next General Assembly its views on the propriety of establishing a weekly newspaper for the church." The owners of the Banner of Peace and The Cumberland Presbyterian declined to submit their property to the valuation of disinterested parties, stating that the property was not for sale. By private negotiation, however, in the fall of 1874, "the good-will" of the Banner of [594] Peace was purchased by the board from the Rev. S.P. Chesnut, D.D., for ten thousand dollars. Soon afterward, the board purchased of Brown & Perrin the good-will of The Cumberland Presbyterian, together with a printing-press and other machinery, for thirteen thousand dollars. The machinery was supposed to be worth about three thousand dollars. The good-will of the Texas Cumberland Presbyterian was purchased of the Rev. J.H. Wofford for twenty-five hundred dollars.

All the papers were consolidated at Nashville, Tennessee, at the total cost of $25,500, the Board of Publication agreeing to fill out the unexpired subscriptions of the three papers. The consolidated paper was first called the Banner-Presbyterian, but the name proved unsatisfactory, and was changed to The Cumberland Presbyterian. Rev. J.R. Brown, D.D., was chosen sole editor, and continued in that position till July 1st, 1883, when Rev. D.M. Harris, D.D., was made joint editor. Dr. Brown's connection with the paper ceased April 1st, 1885, when Dr. Harris was made editor in chief. The Rev. J.M. Howard, D.D., at this time became associate editor of The Cumberland Presbyterian and book editor.

After the purchase of the three weekly papers, the former owner of one of them, and one of the joint owners of another, became interested in the publication at the same places of papers similar in character to those sold. It was contended that such action not only involved disloyalty to the church, but also impaired the "goodwill" purchased by the board, and was in violation of the contract. These questions gave rise to extended discussion in the church, and to deliverances by four General Assemblies. What principles, if any, are settled by these deliverances, it would perhaps be unprofitable now to discuss.

The subscriptions to the papers, when consolidated, amounted to about seven thousand five hundred. The consolidated paper now has a circulation of about fifteen thousand. The price of the consolidated paper is two dollars. It furnishes about twice as much reading matter as any one of its predecessors. It has grown steadily in influence and usefulness. Thus the church has one large weekly to which all our people can justly look with satisfaction--strong, able, and under the church's own control.

[595] In 1874 the board began the publication of a monthly journal, Sunday Morning, for the use of Sunday School teachers, officers, and advanced pupils. It attained a circulation of about twenty-eight hundred, but from considerations of economy was discontinued in 1879. It was followed in the same year by The Comments, a Sunday School quarterly, and in 1885 a quarterly of lower grade was commenced, called The Rays of Light. These two publications have now a combined circulation of about thirty-five thousand.

Since 1879 Rev. R.V. Foster, D.D., has been the editor, except during a short interval, of the Comments, Rays of Light, and Lesson Leaf: He was also the editor of the Gem and Our Lambs until July, 1883, when they were committed to the editorial management of Mrs. Caroline M. Harris.

Mr.W.E. Dunaway was business manager of the board from 1870 to the latter part of 1874, when he resigned and was succeeded by Rev. T.C. Blake, D.D., who filled this position until failing health compelled his resignation in October, 1878. November 1, 1878, John M. Gaut was made corresponding secretary, and, at the request of the board, took temporary charge of the business, exercising a supervisory control over it. He continued in this position till December 1, 1880, when T.M. Hurst was appointed agent and business manager. Mr. Hurst's resignation took place May, 1886, at which time John D. Wilson was elected agent.

The assets of the board gradually increased from $5,217, in July, 1867, to $81,879.05, May 1, 1887. Their valuation approached this latter sum during some of the previous years, but, as was afterward ascertained, they were largely overvalued. The liabilities also increased from nothing in 1867, to $12,390.53 in 1887, having at times during the intervening years been larger than that. The indebtedness in 1879 was so great and the receipts so small that the board was very seriously embarrassed. Without the individual credit of several members of the board freely extended for several years, it would have been difficult, if not impossible, to have averted a suspension of business. An extension of time had to be asked of its creditors, a general retrenchment of expenses was made, and its income largely increased by an increase in the [596] subscribers to the periodicals. In this way the house was greatly relieved. A large burden of debt continued upon it, however, till 1884, when the church by donations in sums of ten dollars, in response to what was known as "the Uncle Josh Proposition," generously contributed upward of ten thousand dollars to pay off the indebtedness. The originator of this proposition was Mr. Joshua D. Spain, of Nashville.

Since 1867 the books published by the board have increased about threefold, and a large number of valuable pamphlets have been issued.

It is curious to note how long the church has been in realizing its desire for certain publications. A committee was appointed in 1824 to collect materials for a history of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. In 1847 the General Assembly resolved to have such a history written, and a committee was appointed to do this work. In 1848 this committee reported progress. The necessity for such a history was urged in the report of the Board of Publication in 1850. The Rev. H.S. Porter, D.D., of Memphis, Tennessee, began the writing of the church's history, but died before the work was finished. In 1856 his widow tendered to the General Assembly his incomplete manuscript and the papers which he had collected. The donation was accepted and a committee appointed to engage a competent person to complete the work. Then the enterprise seems to have slumbered. In 1884--sixty years after the initial effort--the board took the step of which this volume is the result.

The Assembly of 1852 appointed Rev. Milton Bird to prepare for publication "a copious abstract" of the Minutes of the Council, of Old Cumberland Presbytery, of New Cumberland Presbytery, of Cumberland Synod, and of the several General Assemblies from the first to that date; and the Board of Publication was authorized to publish the same. This abstract was prepared and is still in existence. Why it was not published is not known. In 1858 the stated clerk was requested to publish an abstract or digest of these records; and the next Assembly by resolution inquired what he had done toward complying with this request. In 1869 a resolution was adopted, recommending that the Board of Publication should [597] have a digest of the Assembly's deliverances prepared and published as soon as practicable. A subsequent Assembly appointed the board and the stated clerk to do this work. The stated clerk, Hon. John Frizzell, prepared such a digest, and the Assembly of 1878 appointed a committee to review it, and ordered its publication if it was approved. The Assembly of 1885 appointed another committee to take this matter ill hand. This committee reported in 1886, When the whole subject was referred to the next Assembly. That Assembly appointed the Hon. John Frizzell to complete the work, and it will doubtless be ready for the press early in 1888.

The preparation of a hymn and tune book was recommended by the Assembly of 1869. The manuscript of such a work was presented to the Assembly of 1870 and referred to the Board of Publication. The board, fearing that the selections were not adapted to the wants of the church deferred publishing the book. In 1873 the Assembly again expressed itself in favor of such a publication. In that year the Rev. A.J. Baird, D.D., of Nashville, proposed to undertake the compilation of such a work, asking as his only compensation that the board should furnish his church with a supply of the books. The proposition was accepted, and after many months of painstaking labor, his manuscript was ready to be presented to the General Assembly of 1874. By this General Assembly it was referred to a committee for examination. It was slightly amended by this committee, and abridged by the author. Then the revised manuscript was approved by the Assembly of 1875, and the first edition of the work was published by the board in 1876.

The long, faithful, and arduous labors of one of the late honored presidents of the board, the Rev. W.E. Ward, D.D., deserve special mention. From 1858 to 1879, excepting the years when the Pittsburg committee was in charge, he taxed an already overburdened heart and brain with the additional cares and responsibilities of this struggling institution.

The following list contains the names of all who have ever served as members of the board or the Committee of Publication, and shows, with approximate accuracy, the time of each member's service. Except in a few instances, it has been found impossible [598] to ascertain exact dates. Most of the dates here indicated show when the several elections, resignations, or deaths are first mentioned in the board's annual reports.


Rev. Milton Bird 1847-1855 President & Corresponding Secretary.

Rev. Laban Jones 1847-

F.E. McLean 1847-1854

A.M. Phelps 1847-1852

James L. Stratton 1847-

Rev. S.M. Aston -1851/2

Rev. S.B. Howard 1851/2-1856

E.C. Trimble 1852-1857

Charles Miller 1854-1858

Rev. B. Hall 1855-1856

Rev. F.G. Black 1856-1858

Rev. Lee Roy Woods 1856-1858


A.F. Cox 1856-1857

Rev. Caleb Weedin 1856-1858

F.P. Deatheridge 1857-1858

P.N. Frederick 1857-1858

Andrew Allison 1858-1862

Rev. W.E. Ward 1858-1862 President.

Rev. W.E. Ward 1867-1879

Rev. Wiley M. Reed 1858-1862 President.

Joseph Pennock 1862-1865 Chairman.

Rev. S.T. Stewart 1862-1867

Samuel Morrow 1862-1865

Alexander Postley 1862-1867

T.C. Leazear 1862-1865

Rev. I.N. Cary 1865-1867 Chairman.

Edward De Barrene 1867 President.

Rev. A.J. Baird 1867-1870 President.

Rev. L.C. Ransom 1867-1867

David C. Love 1867-1874

John Frizzell 1869-1881 Vice-President & President.

Terry H. Cahal 1870-1872

John M. Gaut 1870-now President, Treasurer, Cor. Sec.

W.C. Smith 1872-1880 Secretary.

Wm. Porter 1874-1876

P.H. Manlove 1876-now Secretary.

R.L. Caruthers, Jr. 1879-1881 Secretary.

Travis Winham 1879-1883

W.F. Nisbet 1881-1886

Thos. W. Campbell 1881-1887

E. Waterhouse 1881-1885

Rev. R.M. Tinnon 1882-1884 Secretary.

Isaac T. Rhea 1883-1887

Rev. J.P. Sprowls 1884-1886 Secretary.

John H. Reynolds 1886-now

Rev. W.J. Darby 1887-now

Rev. J.C. Provine 1887-now

H. Parks, Jr. 1887-now

W.T. Baird 1887-now


The church's first paper, as has been seen, was the Religious and Literary Intelligencer. Its publication was begun by Cossitt & Lowry, at Princeton, Kentucky, early in 1830. It was moved to Nashville in 1832, and its name changed to the Revivalist. In 1834 its name was change to The Cumberland Presbyterian. In 1839 its publication, after a brief suspension, was resumed at Springfield, Tennessee, where it expired in May, 1840. Its editors from first to last were F.R. Cossitt, David Lowry, and James Smith; assistants, T.C. Anderson and John W. Ogden.

[599] THE BANNER OF PEACE--1840 TO 1874. In March 1840, Dr. Cossitt, at Princeton, Kentucky, began the issue of a monthly pamphlet with this title. It was removed to Lebanon, Tennessee, January, 1843. Soon after this it was changed to a weekly. In 1850 the Rev. W.D. Chadick, D.D, bought this paper and continued its publication at Lebanon, at the same time purchasing and consolidating with it The Ark, a monthly, hitherto published at Athens, Tennessee, by Rev. Robert Frazier. Then he took Rev. David Lowry into partnership, both as proprietor and editor. He and Lowry sold the Banner of Peace to the Rev. Isaac Shook and the Rev. J.C. Provine. The paper was then moved to Nashville, where it remained till it was absorbed by the consolidated paper in 1874. Its succession of editors, after its removal to Nashville, was as follows: J.C. Provine, W.S. Langdon, W.E. Ward, J.C. Provine, J.M. Halsell, T.C. Blake, S.P. Chesnut. Some of the articles which appeared in the Banner of Peace were afterward collected and published in book form. Mahlon's Letters, by Dr. A.J. Baird, is one example. Others might well have been preserved in a similar manner.

CHURCH PAPERS IN PENNSYLVANIA. A Cumberland Presbyterian newspaper was started in Pennsylvania before John Morgan began the publication of the Union and Evangelist, but no record of its name or its work has been found. It is alluded to sarcastically by Smith in his editorials. It ran a very brief course. In 1840 the Union and Evangelist began its career at Uniontown, Pennsylvania. After some time the Rev. J.P. Weethee became assistant editor. The next year Morgan died, and Milton Bird continued the publication for a short time at Uniontown. He then moved his paper to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and changed its name to the Evangelist and Observer. In 1846 we find the paper back at Uniontown, and its name changed to The Cumberland Presbyterian. Afterward the Rev. A.B. Brice became associate editor along with Bird. In 1847 Brice bought out Bird's interest, and continued to publish the paper at Uniontown till 1850. Then he removed to Brownsville and associated the Rev. J.T.A. Henderson with himself in the editorial work.

[600] In 1857 the Rev. William Campbell was editor, and in 1860 the paper was issued from Waynesburg. In 1863 we find the name of the Rev. A.B. Miller, D.D., as editor, and after a while the name of Azel Freeman, associated with Dr. Miller's.

In November, 1868, Dr. Miller sold out his subscription list to Dr. J.B. Logan, of Illinois, and Pennsylvania for more than eight years had no Cumberland Presbyterian paper. In May, 1877, at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, the Rev. Philip Axtell began the publication of The Religious Pantagraph, a large weekly. It was continued until November, 1878, when its subscription list, which had reached eleven hundred, was transferred to the Saint Louis Observer. During a part of the year 1881, a small monthly, the Semi-Centennial, was issued at Pittsburg by Mr. Axtell, but its publication was suspended before the year closed.

THE CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN PULPIT. This was a monthly devoted to the publication of sermons. The first number was issued at Nashville, Tennessee, in January, 1833, by the Rev. James Smith. The first volume contains three sermons from Finis Ewing: one on the atonement, one against slavery, and one on Christian union; two sermons each from David Lowry, Robert Donnell, and Abner McDowell; and one each from Hiram A. Hunter, James Guthrie, George Donnell, William Ralston, Laban Jones, David Foster, Isaac Shook, David Morrow, John W. Ogden, James Smith, Richard Beard, A.G. Gibson, Robert Sloane, J.L. Dillard, David M. Kirkpatrick, Alexander Anderson, and C.P. Reed. One of the sermons furnished by Robert Donnell was preached at the Rev. William McGee's funeral, and the one contributed by John W. Ogden, was preached at the funeral of the Rev. William Barnett. Richard Beard is contribution was a sermon on The Church. It abounds in poetical quotations.

These sermons show what was the character of the preaching in Cumberland Presbyterian pulpits during the first two decades of the church's history. In all of them there is the utmost plainness and directness of manner. Reading them reminds us of Moody and his stirring appeals to sinners. In Donnell's sermon, preached at the funeral of William McGee, we are told that there were conversions under almost every sermon that McGee ever preached. That [601] statement calls up a remark which the writer, when only a child, heard Robert Donnell make to the Rev. Samuel McSpeddin. He used something like these words: "Brother McSpeddin, there is something wrong. I have now preached two sermons in succession without witnessing one single conversion." How many sermons in succession do our preachers now deliver without witnessing a conversion? How many preach without either expecting or praying for conversions? Some have set times in the future, and look forward to the protracted meeting season, when they expect and pray for conversions; and they grind their ecclesiastical organs to entertain and hold their congregations together the rest of the year.

THE ARK--1841 TO 1850. In September, 1841, the Rev. Robert Frazier began the publication of The Ark, at Athens, Tennessee. This was a monthly. It at first had three special departments: 1. Doctrinal, 2. Ecclesiastical, 3. Moral. An historical department was afterward added. One thing might have been safely predicted in advance of all Frazier's editorials. He would run in no ruts. He called no man master. There was a boldness and vigor about his writings which constituted their chief charm. Oftener wrong, perhaps, than right in the positions he took, it is manifest at least that he was honest and thoroughly in earnest in all these positions. He was fearless, too, attacking every thing in the church which he believed to be wrong. His paper earnestly advocated the divorce of the church courts from all secular enterprises.

THE TEXAS PRESBYTERIAN. In November, 1846, the Rev. A.J. McGown issued the first number of this paper at Victoria, Texas. It was a large four-page weekly. Its location was several times changed. After publishing this paper nine years as a private enterprise, he tried to induce his synod to take charge of it. In this, however, he was not successful, and so he continued to plead for the interests of the Texas churches in its columns. Not only was the paper valuable to the local interests, but some of the best materials for a history of the progress of the church in other fields have been gathered from articles published in it. It is asserted by some that this was the first [602] Protestant newspaper ever published on Texas soil. McGown and his paper received strong commendations from members of other churches, from old soldiers of San Jacinto, and from authors of stately volumes.

TEXAS CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN--TEXAS OBSERVER. The Texas Cumberland Presbyterian was not the same paper McGown edited, but a new enterprise, undertaken after his death. Its publication was begun by Rev. J.B. Renfro and Rev. J.H. Wofford, at Tehuacana, April, 1873, and it was continued until the Assembly's consolidation scheme absorbed all the private newspapers of the church. The sale of this paper to the church was accomplished in December, 1874. Wofford had previously bought out Renfro's interest. In 1879 Mr. Wofford began the publication of a new paper, the Texas Observer, at Tehuacana. This paper has changed owners and editors several times, and the place of publication has also been frequently changed. It is now issued as the organ of Trinity University by a stock company. Under this arrangement Dr. E.B. Crisman and the Rev. J.S. Groves were until recently the editors. The Rev. W.B. Preston has lately become editor. Its name has been changed to the Texas Cumberland Presbyterian.

THE WATCHMAN AND EVANGELIST--1850 TO 1859. Milton Bird, after he sold The Cumberland Presbyterian, at Uniontown, Pennsylvania, to the Rev. A.B. Brice, moved to Louisville, Kentucky, and, in 1850, started the Watchman and Evangelist there. After several changes of editors, this paper was, in 1859, consolidated with the Missouri Cumberland Presbyterian, and moved to Saint Louis.

PAPERS IN MISSOURI AND ILLINOIS. Saint Louis, Missouri, and Alton, Illinois, have for a long time jointly constituted an important newspaper center for our people. In May, 1852, at the earnest solicitation of a number of Missouri ministers and leading laymen, the Rev. J.B. Logan began the publication of the Missouri Cumberland Presbyterian at Lexington, Missouri. He had the promise of five hundred subscribers to begin with, and the list was to be increased to one thousand by the [603] close of the year; but he began with three hundred. In a year he moved the paper to Saint Louis. In 1858 or 1859 the Watchman and Evangelist, published at Louisville by A.F. Cox, and edited by the Rev. Milton Bird, D.D., was united with the Missouri Cumberland Presbyterian, and the consolidated paper was called the Saint Louis Observer. Dr. Bird was for a time its editor. Mr. Cox afterward bought this paper. About the beginning of the war the list was sold to The Cumberland Presbyterian, then published at Waynesburg, Pennsylvania.

About 1861 the Rev. J.B. Logan began the publication of the Western Cumberland Presbyterian, at Alton, Illinois. It was continued under this name until November, 1868, when it became the Cumberland Presbyterian, its proprietor having purchased from Dr. A.B. Miller, of Waynesburg, Pennsylvania, the paper bearing this latter title. The Rev. J.R. Brown became joint editor and also joint proprietor of this consolidated paper. In 1874 it was sold to the Board of Publication by Brown and Perrin, and removed to Nashville, Tennessee.

In September, 1875, the publication of Our Faith was begun at Alton. This was a monthly, and the Rev. J.B. Logan, D.D., was its editor. It was continued about a year and a half, when it was merged into the Saint Louis Observer. The latter was a weekly paper, and the Rev. W.B. Farr, D.D., was made its editor. The Rev. W.C. Logan afterward became associate editor. Mr. Logan and the Rev. J.R. Brown, D.D., are its present editors.

THE LADIES PEARL--1852 TO 1884. This was a monthly magazine for women. Its publication was commenced at Nashville, Tennessee, by W.S. Langdon and J.C. Provine, in 1852. It was the testimony of Dr. Herschel S. Porter that this magazine did more to develop the talents of the women of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church than all other agencies put together. Hosts of sprightly writers were called out who knew nothing of their own powers till the Pearl developed them.J.B. Logan, J.R. Brown, John Shirley Ward, J.M. Halsell, and S.P. Chesnut were all at one time or another editors of this magazine. Dr. Chesnut finally sold it, and Cumberland Presbyterians ceased to have any periodical specially for ladies.

[604] THE PACIFIC OBSERVER. In 1860, at Alamo, California, the Rev. T.M. Johnston started the first Cumberland Presbyterian paper on the Pacific coast. It was first called The Presbyter, afterward The Pacific Observer. At first it was issued monthly, but was soon changed to a weekly. It was removed to Stockton, and was of good size and well printed. The subscription price was four dollars a year. The isolated condition of our feeble churches in California gave a poor prospect for sufficient patronage to sustain such a paper; but Johnston persevered, though at a heavy pecuniary loss. He felt that the paper was a necessity to the church in that country; and he spared neither toil nor money in the struggle to meet the pressing demand. In 1871 this paper was bought by Dr. D.E. Bushnell, and moved from Stockton to San Francisco, where it ran a short course and then ceased to exist. Its fruits, however, still live.

CENTRAL CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN. The publication of this paper was begun at Owensboro, Kentucky, January, 1865, with the Rev. Jesse Anderson as editor. Near the close of that year the Rev. J.M. Halsell became editor and proprietor. Its largest circulation was in Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. Its influence helped to prepare the way for the conservative action of the General Assembly in 1866. It was consolidated with the Banner of Peace at Nashville, June, 1866.

THE THEOLOGICAL MEDIUM--1845 TO 1884. In 1845, at Uniontown, Pennsylvania, the Rev. Milton Bird issued the first number of the Theological Medium. It was at first a monthly, devoted to theological discussions. Its first article was a discussion of the subject of election, by the Rev. Albert Gibson. It frequently published sermons. Its location was several times changed. Finally it was changed into a quarterly. It passed through various hands. Dr. T.C. Blake owned and edited it a while. Then it was bought by the Board of Publication, and the Rev. M.B. DeWitt was its editor. After this the theological professors in Cumberland University were its proprietors and editors. Then W.C. Logan, of Saint Louis, Missouri, in whose hands it died, was its owner and editor. Its name had, in the meantime, under [605] gone some transformations. Its last name was the Cumberland Presbyterian Quarterly.

The doctrines and policy of the church were ably discussed in this quarterly. So, also, were many questions of general interest. Nearly all our best scholars and writers were at one time or another contributors to its pages. Its files furnish a striking record of the views and the progress of our people; and indicate a gratifying unity of doctrine and harmony of feeling. No arguments against the inspiration of the Bible, no clerical infidelity, no "scientific apostasy from the faith " is to be found in any of these productions of our writers. Solid, old-time views on all the great leading doctrines greet us everywhere as we peruse these pages. The doctrine of the plenary inspiration of the whole Bible, of the eternal punishment of the finally impenitent, of the vicarious atonement of Christ, of the spiritually dead state of the unconverted, and, therefore, of the absolute necessity of regeneration and of justification by faith, together with all the other standard doctrines of our Confession of Faith, are ably enforced. Some little differences in minor matters there are, of course, but there is a general unity in sound and orthodox teaching. We find, too, in these files many able articles from recognized leaders on the necessity of holy living. Prominent among those pleading for holiness of life were Samuel McAdow and Dr. Beard.

Cumberland Presbyterians have had in all over fifty periodicals, and over one hundred editors. There have been six newspaper centers in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church: one in Kentucky, one in Tennessee, one in Pennsylvania, one in Texas, one at Alton or Saint Louis, and one on the Pacific coast. The Rev. F. Lack's paper in the German language, and some occasional publications in the Japanese tongue, are the only periodicals ever published by our people not in the English language. There have been transient issues of some sort in the Choctaw language and, perhaps, in the Cherokee, but no regular periodicals. The church has an important work to do in furnishing a periodical literature for our children and young people. Our Sunday School publications are doing great good, and have a most inviting field of usefulness to cultivate.



From the first there was dissatisfaction with the arrangement of the chapters of our Confession of Faith. Besides this, there were in the book scraps of the Westminster Confession that belonged naturally to the rejected system of fatality, and were hard to fit into the system held and preached with great unanimity by our ministers. This fault of our first Confession was freely admitted by the men who compiled the book. Strong statements to this effect, from Ewing in particular, exist now in manuscript, to be filed in the library of Cumberland University. In spite of these admissions, not only the original compilers of the book but a great number of younger men feared to open the door of revision, lest too great innovations should be made. What greatly strengthened these fears was the fact that one or two strong men in the church who rejected vital points in our system of doctrines were acknowledged leaders among revisionists.

In 1852 the following paper was submitted to the Assembly by the Rev. Samuel Dennis:

Whereas, It is believed by many, whose opinions deserve respectful consideration, that in order to a more clear, definite, and literal rendering of the distinctive tenets of Cumberland Presbyterianism, a revision of the Confession of Faith and Form of Government is necessary; and, whereas, it is believed that such revision can be safely undertaken by this General Assembly: therefore,

Resolved, 1. That a committee of nine be appointed by this General Assembly, whose duty it shall be to take under consideration every part of the Confession of Faith and the Form of Government, and report the result of their labors to the next General Assembly.

2. That said committee shall have no power to diminish any chapter or section, or add thereto, only in so far as they may esteem it necessary to present the doctrines and government of the church in as literal, clear, and unambiguous manner as possible; and they are hereby forbidden to introduce a new chapter or section, unless they shall esteem an additional section to the sixteenth chapter of the Form of Government necessary to carry out the provisions of said chapter; nor shall they be permitted to add footnotes.

After considerable discussion, this was negatived. The yeas and nays being called stood, yeas, 14; nays, 69.

[607] But the revisionists were not to be put down, even by so decided a vote. The very next year they came with a synodical memorial, asking for revision. The Assembly of 1853 yielded so far as to appoint a committee to prepare a revised Confession. As soon as this was done, the Banner of Peace closed its columns against the discussion of the question. Its editor was a revisionist, but Milton Bird, who was opposed to revision, kept the columns of his paper open to this discussion. The committee prepared a new creed, and printed it and the creed of 1814 in parallel columns. This was a very fair and satisfactory mode of presenting the case. This amended Confession was reported by the committee to the Assembly of 1854. It contained no new doctrines, but presented a rearrangement of the order of the chapters. A few objectionable phrases were struck out, and words more in keeping with the general method of presenting our doctrines in the pulpit substituted. The first, second, fourth, seventh, twelfth, sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, twentieth, twenty-first, twenty-second, twenty-third, twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth, twenty-sixth, twenty-seventh, and twenty-ninth chapters of the Confesssion were presented unchanged.

On the question of accepting this report and of submitting the proposed amendments to the presbyteries, speeches were made by Dr. S.G. Burney and the Rev. Reuben Burrow in favor of the revision; and by Dr. Richard Beard and Judge R.L. Caruthers against it. Very deep interest was felt in the discussion. Robert Donnell, who helped to prepare our first Confession, was present and took sides with the opposers of revision. There was not time during the sitting of one Assembly thoroughly to examine and discuss the proposed amendments. Men feared evils which these changes did not involve. When the vote was reached there was a very large majority against the new book.

One of the strangest things in all the history of the church took place after that. A synod went so far as to pass a vote of censure upon the Assembly for refusing to refer that revised Confession to the presbyteries, and published its action in the Banner of Peace.

An effort to revise our Form of Government has already been [608] alluded to. It engaged the attention of every General Assembly from 1867 to 1874. A committee consisting of Richard Beard, S.G. Burney, J.H. Coulter, R.L. Caruthers, and John Frizzell was appointed in the year first named, and reported to the Assembly of 1868 a revised Form of Government and Discipline, which was approved and submitted to the presbyteries. Fifty-eight of the one hundred Presbyteries reported action on it, and but eight of these approved the revision as a whole; twenty accepted parts of it, while twenty-eight rejected the whole. A new committee, consisting of F.G. Black, H.D. Onyett, A. Templeton, C.H. Bell, and Nathan Green was however appointed to perfect this work of revision. By the order of the Assembly of 1870, fifteen hundred copies of this new committee's report were printed and the whole matter referred to the next Assembly. Much of the time of the Assemblies of 1871 and 1872 was spent in discussing and amending this proposed revision. Twenty-one chapters, composing a new Form of Government, were approved by the Assembly in 1872, and submitted to the presbyteries. Thirty-seven presbyteries voted in favor of these chapters, and forty-two against them, while twenty-five presbyteries were not heard from. By the Assembly of 1873 the same matter was referred back to the presbyteries to enable them to review their action. But in 1874 but forty-three presbyteries reported in favor of this revision, while forty-six voted against it. The matter was then indefinitely postponed.

In 1881 a memorial was presented to the General Assembly, again asking for a revision of the Confession of Faith. That Assembly appointed two committees, one to revise the book, and another to revise this revision. The first committee consisted of S.G. Burney, A. Templeton, and John Frizzell; the second, of C.H. Bell, J.W. Poindexter, A.B. Miller, W.J. Darby, and R.L. Caruthers. These committees early in 1882 published the result of their work in The Cumberland Presbyterian, presenting a " Revised Confession of Faith, and Government." This report was also printed in pamphlet form, and mailed to all the ministers of the church. It was introduced by a statement, signed by all the members of the committee who participated in the work, setting forth in a very forcible manner the reasons why the revision was [609] thought desirable. This introduction gave the following account of the work of the committees:

The first committee met at Lebanon, Tennessee, November 18, 1881, all the members being present, and continued its labors until the evening of the 24th, holding three sessions daily, Sunday excepted. The second committee convened November 25, 1881, at the same place, Ministers C.H. Bell and W.J. Darby, and Ruling Elder R.L. Caruthers being present; and continued its labors one week, holding three sessions daily, Sunday excepted. By request the first committee was

present with the second at its meetings, and participated in its deliberations. The discussions were full and free, evincing a wonderful harmony of opinion. Some preferences as to verbal form had, of course, to be surrendered. This, however, was always done in the true spirit of compromise, and in no instance was there a negative vote. Mindful of the fact that the committees were appointed not to make a new Confession, but to revise the old one, we have studied not to transcend our authority; and we have no hesitation in saying that we have not changed a single doctrine fundamental to your scheme of theology, or any of its logical correlates.

It was announced that the object of publishing this report before the meeting of the Assembly was "to secure to the committees the benefit of the suggestions and criticisms or objections" that any person might wish to make before the revised book should be finally presented to the Assembly. The secretaries of the two committees published the following statement:

The committees feel that they have discharged the trust assigned them by the General Assembly with a conscientious regard to its importance, but they will meet again for a final revision previous to the meeting of the Assembly. Any suggestion forwarded to them in the meantime will be carefully considered before the matter is submitted to the Assembly.

The discussion of this report and of questions connected with it was excluded from the church paper until after the meeting of the Assembly of 1882, the editor assigning the following reasons:

The report being yet in the hands of the committee, and incomplete, it of course is not yet presented for adoption, and is not legitimately before the church for discussion. ... To enter upon a general discussion of the report while it is in this incomplete state would not be justice to the committee nor profitable to the church, as it would be necessary [610] to go over the whole ground again. ... We want the report considered and the issue met on its merits, which can not be done now. ... The work is incomplete and in the hands of a committee, and has not been considered by the General Assembly. Therefore the time for a discussion in the paper has not come.

It probably would have been well, in order to remove all possible grounds of dissatisfaction or complaint, to have allowed those not in favor of revision to state their objections in the church paper, even before the report was submitted to the Assembly. There would have been no injustice to the committees in this. They would have been helped rather than hindered by the suggestions which such a discussion would have called forth. There was really no danger of any angry or distracting controversy. A full and impartial discussion at that time, while it could not have changed the final result, would have satisfied the few who were opposed to the new book. But these few really had no serious ground of complaint. The committees called for suggestions from the whole church, giving every man in the denomination a chance to file his objection or record his protest; and in the Assembly, and afterward in the papers and before the presbyteries, the fullest possible opportunity for discussion was afforded. The Assembly of 1882 made considerable changes in the proposed book, and then referred it to the presbyteries, requiring them to accept or reject the new Confession as a whole.

There were some who thought final action should have been deferred another year, to give time for further suggestions and amendments, but the majority thought otherwise. A large portion of the new book is the work of the Assembly of 1882. As a system it differs from the old in nothing but its omissions. It contains no new doctrines. No original Cumberland Presbyterian could reject the new Confession.

Improvements, which an anti-revisionist is obliged to admit, are found in very many places. For example the order of subjects in our first Confession is Justification, Adoption, Sanctification, Saving Faith, Repentance; while the order in the revised book is Repentance, Faith, Justification, Regeneration, Adoption, Sanctification. Every old-time Cumberland Presbyterian recognizes the [611] landmarks of our theological system in the second arrangement, but not in the first. Throughout the new book, harmony with our pulpit theology is clearly discernible.

The only just grounds for complaint against the new book are in its omissions, and in its loose and hastily written portions. After all, Confessions of Faith are smaller, far smaller matters now than they were in the preceding century. The Bible, studied as a book, without reference to creeds, is very different from the Bible studied in the light of a particular creed. The Bible as a book is what our International Sabbath School System puts us all to studying. The Bible as a book will, it is hoped, one day be studied in all our theological schools. It is the utter abuse of creeds to use them as candles for studying the Scripture. They have their appropriate place, but that place is a very subordinate one.

The report of the committees contained no list of proof-texts, and there is no record of such a list ever coming before the Assembly. These proof-texts were not, therefore, submitted to the presbyteries, and are left by the committees just where they ought to be left, as mere suggestions and nothing more. They are helpful, and there their mission ends. So too the preface is properly left in the same loose connection with the creed. It is not and should not be a part of our doctrines. It was very properly never referred to the presbyteries, and contains historic statements which may be questioned without incurring the charge of heresy. Whether we think it good or bad, true or false, is a matter of no importance.

One thing that did go down to the presbyteries and meet their approval, and now stands as a law of the church, was improperly or by oversight omitted from the stereotyped book, though it was in the earlier and cheaper edition. It is this:

It being hereby distinctly understood and declared that those who have heretofore received and adopted the Confession of Faith approved by the General Assembly in 1829, and who prefer to adhere to the doctrinal statements contained therein, are at liberty to do so. {First (printed) edition of new Confession, page 137. See also Assembly's Minutes, 1882, page 36.}

This is the edition on which the presbyteries acted. This item went far toward satisfying the anti-revisionists.

[612] The presbyteries voted almost unanimously in favor of the adoption of this new creed. There has been nothing like this unanimity in all ecclesiastical history. It amazed and silenced those who were opposed to revision. Most of these determined at once to acquiesce. A few may still be unhappy about it, but even they are bound to admit that the new creed is by no means what they apprehended that it would prove to be.

After Paul came as an appendix to the apostleship, God sent Peter (one of the fathers) to write a few words, in his old age, to let the churches know that he indorsed what this fiery apostle to the Gentiles had taught in his epistles. So, in 1883, God in his goodness allowed John L. Dillard, who was a full-grown man before our church was organized, in 1810, and who was a companion in the gospel with all the first Cumberland Presbyterian ministers, to speak in terms of approval of the doctrinal teachings and the spirit of the church in this generation. He not only saw and read the new creed, but expressed himself as well pleased with it. It is not likely that such an old watch-dog of our orthodoxy could be deceived.


Among the items taken down by the author of this history from the lips of the Rev. Thomas Calhoun, in 1845, was the following: "Samuel King was the first man I ever heard come out publicly against even the moderate use of whisky. He refused to ask a blessing at a public dinner because the table had whisky on it." In the Minutes of Elk Presbytery for April, 1816, page 21, Vol.I., are resolutions pledging all the members to total abstinence, and binding them to enforce this rule to the utmost among their people, and wherever else their authority or influence extended.

Our church papers have all been agreed in their opposition to intemperance and the whisky traffic. Whatever else they may have differed about, they all have spoken with one voice on this subject. It would be hard to determine which of our one hundred editors has been the most outspoken against whisky and in favor of temperance. Those now in the editorial work are all earnest advocates of total abstinence and prohibition, but they are not [613] more earnest or outspoken on this subject than was David Lowry, who belonged to the first editorial corps of our first church newspaper.

The Rev. Lee Roy Woods gave in The Cumberland Presbyterian the following reasons for going to the legislature of Indiana, in 1855:

The facts in the case are these. I had given up my place as publishing agent, and had taken a very active part in the temperance cause, which has agitated our State from one end to the other. I was a member of the State convention, which resolved to ignore all party questions and make the passage of a prohibitory law the issue at the polls. I had advocated the same in a convention in our own county, and strongly advocated the nomination of a temperance ticket for the county in the event of the politicians refusing to do so. They did refuse, and we had no alternative left us but to have our county represented by me~ opposed to our whole temperance scheme, or nominate a ticket of our own. This we determined to do. When we came to look over the ground and see the difficulty, we had some trouble in finding men who would assume the responsibility of pleading the claims of our cause before the public. In this dilemma the convention, without a single dissenting voice, demanded of me that I should accept the nomination and make the canvass. No one but myself knows the struggle which it cost me to obtain my own consent. Nothing but my deep solicitude for the cause of temperance, and a sense of duty to our common country, could have induced me to accept this expression of confidence on the part of so many of my fellow-citizens. On the day of my nomination, and throughout the whole canvass, I publicly refused to be a politician. I made the race exclusively on the question of "Search and Seizure," no other question was discussed.

He was elected on this prohibition ticket, called the "Search and Seizure" ticket.

When our church had but three presbyteries, and drinking whisky was as common as drinking coffee is now, each of these presbyteries declared it to be an offense worthy of discipline to make, sell, give away, or drink intoxicating liquors. Our church courts have kept up these utterances, only making them stronger and stronger as the years have passed away. All of our recent Assemblies have declared it to be the duty of Cumberland Presbyterians to co-operate in all lawful efforts to secure the prohibition [614] of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating drinks. The Assembly of 1851 passed the following resolution:

Resolved, That it is the sense of this General Assembly that to make, buy, sell, or use as a beverage any spirituous or intoxicating liquors is an immorality; that it is not only unauthorized, but forbidden by the word of God. We do, therefore, recommend to the several churches under our care, to abstain wholly from their use.

The Assembly of 1853 adopted a report which, after setting forth the evils of intemperance, asks:

What is the duty of the church relative to this important question? We believe there is but one answer. It is the duty of the Christian to use every reasonable effort within his power to advance the glorious cause of temperance. If he fails in this he fails in one material branch of his duty, and will be held accountable for the failure. We regard the efforts now being made in the temperance cause as requiring the cooperation of the church, ... as one of the means of reforming and finally converting the world; and the failure of church members thus to cooperate amounts to a sin against light and knowledge. So far as our information extends, this branch of Zion is discharging her duty in this great work with commendable zeal.

The efforts which Christians should use for the furtherance of this work consist not alone in abstaining from the use of ardent spirits, and being Washingtonians or Sons of Temperance. The true and devoted advocate of temperance will labor for the enactment of such laws as will prohibit the making, vending, or use of intoxicating liquors.

To this preamble the following resolutions were added:

1.--It is incompatible with the character of a Christian, and particularly the Christian character of a Cumberland Presbyterian, to use or in any way to encourage the use of ardent spirits as a beverage.

2.--If he fails to use reasonable efforts to bring about, by legal enactments or otherwise, an entire prohibition of the liquor traffic, he acts beneath his duty as a professor of religion.

3.--Christians not only have duties to discharge to the church and the world as Christians, but also to their government and society as citizens.

4.--In discharging the latter duty they should be governed by the broad principles of Christian philanthropy, advocating the extermination of alcoholic drinks ... by the enactment of prohibitory laws for that purpose, with such penalties as will cause those laws to be respected and enforced.

[615] With some slight verbal changes, this preamble, accompanied by the same resolutions, was adopted by the Assembly of 1854.

Time after time the Assembly and subordinate judicatures have called on all our ministers and churches to pray for the overthrow of the whisky traffic. Sunday Schools have been again and again urged to teach the doctrine of total abstinence and prohibition. Men who sell intoxicating spirits have repeatedly been declared unfit for church membership.

In 1876 the managers of the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition made provisions to allow whisky to be sold on their grounds. Our General Assembly that year, by a unanimous rising vote, protested against this action as "a flagrant violation of the moral and Christian sense of the American people," and appealed to the Centennial Board of Finance to revoke this license, adopting the following resolution:

Resolved, That we do hereby earnestly recommend that all the members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church refrain from patronizing the Centennial Exhibition until the ruling of the Board of Managers be changed on this subject.

The Assembly of 1884 appointed "a day of special prayer for divine guidance in the selection of discreet and godly men by the great political parties" in the national conventions then approaching. It urged that greater prominence should be given to the subject of temperance in Sunday Schools, and that temperance meetings for children should be held. It indorsed the various societies organized to promote the temperance reform, enumerating "the several State Temperance Alliances, the Woman's Christian temperance Union, the Order of Good Templars, the Young Men's Christian Association, and the Band of Hope."

In 1885 the Assembly declared "the manufacture or sale of ardent spirits as a beverage inconsistent with Christian character and the high relation of church membership;" and in 1886 the cause of prohibition was indorsed in this strong language:

Recognizing the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors as the source of very great evils, we reaffirm our unflinching devotion to the cause of absolute constitutional prohibition, and we are glad to note that other ecclesiastical bodies are taking high ground on this subject.

[616] The Assembly of 1887 declared "that the failure or refusal of any professed follower of our divine Master to use his profession in favor of, to pray for, labor for, and vote for such legislation as will free the country and God's church from this drink curse, is inconsistent with the teachings of holy Scripture and the example of our Savior."

David Lowry, in an article published not long before his death, adduces an array of testimonies to prove that the use of fermented wines was forbidden at the Jewish passovers,(34) presenting Jewish instructions about the time and the manner in which the passover wine should be prepared, and denying that Christ made fermented wine or wine that would intoxicate. He showed that all the direct utterances of the Bible on this subject condemn strong drink in the most unmistakable terms. Incidental mention of harlots and of thieves there are, in which the sacred writer does not stop to express condemnation, but in every direct declaration concerning their character and their deeds they are condemned. Of the same nature are all the Bible utterances about strong drink. Many incidental mentions of it we find, but in every case where its character is directly pronounced upon, it is either condemned or prohibited, or both. All persons are forbidden even to look upon the wine when it is red.(35) We are forbidden to induct into the ministry any man who is given to wine-drinking.(36) Such is the tone generally of the direct declarations of God's word.

By the grace of God the sober people of the land are determined to give the matter no rest until the manufacture and sale of intoxicating drinks are as thoroughly prohibited by law as are theft and murder.

The following anecdote concerning the Rev. J.M. Berry, which appeared in one of our church papers, is given as a fitting close for this chapter:

Abraham Lincoln was once the partner in a little store with William Berry, the Rev. J.M. Berry's son---his prodigal son. After Lincoln had retired from the "store," and had gained considerable [617] notoriety as a lawyer, some women banded together and broke up a grog-shop which had become an intolerable nuisance to the neighborhood. They knocked in the heads of the barrels and kegs, and smashed the bottles. When the dram seller threatened them with the law or violence, one of the women said to him: "Be quiet, for we are determined to knock in the head of every thing that has liquor in it; and your own head is in danger." Lincoln volunteered to plead the cause of the women. The case was tried in the town where the Rev. J.M. Berry lived. A large crowd had collected to hear the pleading. The evils of intemperance were so eloquently presented as to touch most of those present, and many were bathed in tears. "There," said the speaker, pointing his long bony finger toward Mr. Berry, "is the man who years ago was instrumental in convincing me of the evils of trafficking in and using ardent spirits." Tears ran in streams down the aged preacher's cheeks. His thoughts at that time were probably something like this: "O my ruined boy! I lost you, but saved your partner. Thank God my labors were not in vain in the Lord."




Pioneer missionaries of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church have penetrated to almost all the Territories of the West. The lack of an adequate home mission fund has crippled the efforts of our people to establish congregations, but in spite of the lack of strong support from the churches in the older States, a good work has been done in many towns and country places in these new fields.


As soon as the Territory of Colorado was open to white settlers, Cumberland Presbyterian preachers and private members joined the tide of emigration that flowed thither. The Rev. B.F. Moore was perhaps the first of our preachers to make his home in this Territory. He was there and at work when the Rev. J. Cal. Littrell and the Rev. S.D. Givens arrived in the fall of 1870. The Board of Missions rendered some little assistance to Littrell and Givens, whose work in that Territory was crowned with great success.

In November, 1870, these three ministers, Moore, Littrell, and Givens, organized the Rocky Mountain Presbytery.(37) This presbytery had at first but one congregation under its care. The missionaries traveled from house to house, laboring among the families of the emigrants, and holding meetings wherever they could gather the people together. In 1872 there were six congregations, one hundred and nine members, and one hundred and forty-eight [619] pupils in the Sunday Schools. The church property in the presbyterial bounds was valued at five thousand dollars. In the year ending May, 1874, Littrell traveled over five thousand miles, and preached one hundred and eighty-seven times. There were four congregations in his field of labor.

The Rev. T.H. Henderson was laboring as missionary at Colorado Springs in 1874. In 1875 the board reported that this mission had been taken under its care. The congregation then had a "good church edifice finished and paid for, and a small organization of energetic and liberal members." The Rev. P.A. Rice, who succeeded the Rev. T.H. Henderson as missionary, had also resigned. Afterward the Rev. J.H. Steele, the Rev. J. Cal. Littrell, and the Rev. W.A. Hyde successively served as missionaries here. To the Assembly of 1881 the board announced that this mission had been declared self-sustaining.

The city of Pueblo was a point of interest to Cumberland Presbyterian pioneers, and a good beginning in denominational work was made there mainly by private enterprise. Then the congregation was adopted by our board as a mission. A comfortable church was built and paid for. When the Board of Missions made its report in 1886, this congregation had a membership of twenty, and church property valued at $3,500.


In 1875 that zealous pioneer, the Rev. J. Cal. Littrell, published the following account of an exploring trip made by him in New Mexico:

Through the kindness of my congregations and friends at home, I was granted time to visit Colfax County, New Mexico. I had been for over a year receiving earnest requests from the people there, urging me to visit them and preach to them. This I have done during the past twenty-five days. I found large communities gospel hungry. They have no preaching, no Sunday-schools, no assembling together on the Sabbath day. I preached where the gospel had never been proclaimed before. Some had not heard a sermon for more than ten years. We were blessed with gracious outpourings of the Holy Spirit. Christians were made happy in a Savior's love afresh, and some for the first time learned the joy of believing. Men of the world wept and trembled. There was much earnest pleading for help. Many said: "Won't you [620] come and preach to us, or send some one? We are poor, but we will do all we can." I thank God that I went, although it was a hard trip, and I received less than my expenses. I have the assurance that I did them some good. I met several Cumberland Presbyterians. O that the missionary spirit would fire some faithful and efficient man to go into that field? It is extensive. and white unto harvest. I traveled four hundred and fifteen miles, and received one dollar and fifteen cents.

No attempt has been made to plant Cumberland Presbyterian Churches in New Mexico.


Before Nebraska was a home for white settlers it was part of the great highway to the Pacific. Fur traders, soldiers, daring adventurers, and miners had their regular routes of travel across its wide plains, and their posts for supplies along its water courses. Along with these travelers were some of our own people, as well as along with the very first permanent settlers on this soil. Uke most pioneers, however, they published no history of their labors. It is by no means to be presumed that their lives were destitute of adventures. Indian difficulties and Indian massacres we know there were, and questions growing out of some of these came up for discussion and decision before the national authorities ten years after Nebraska became an organized Territory of the United States.

When all became peaceful, it did not follow that Indians were no longer Indians. It is said that when the kind-hearted Quakers of Philadelphia heard that the Nebraska squaws wore no bonnets, they immediately sent an ample supply. On the reception of these, the Indian braves held a council and decided to use the bonnets for "crow cushions," bound upon the persons not of the squaws, but the warriors!

The men who organized and managed the celebrated express company for overland passengers and freight from the "States" to California before the war, were members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The history of this enterprise with the biographies of the men who planned it and carried it out, would, if published, form a volume of thrilling interest. Large-hearted, brave, adventurous men they were, and all the West teems with stories of their wonderful energy and liberality. This company had one of its important stations in what is now Nebraska City.

[621] The following account of the introduction of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in the Territory of Nebraska was written in 1868 by the Rev. R.S. Reed, then pastor at Nebraska City, and published in the Banner of Peace.

I am not positive, but believe that the first sermon by a Cumberland Presbyterian minister in Nebraska was preached in the spring of 1&58 or 1859, by the Rev. Robert Renick, of Missouri. It occurred in this way: Alexander Majors, Esq., formerly of Independence, Missouri, and for many years a ruling elder in our church at that place, had settled in Nebraska City, and was extensively engaged in the freighting business. The rules by which he governed his teamsters--usually a rough class of men--were peculiar to himself, but of very extensive notoriety in this Western country. Among other wholesome requirements, drunkenness and profanity were positively prohibited under penalty of immediate dismission from service without pay. These rules were strictly enforced; and, in addition, it was Mr. Majors' custom to rest on the Sabbath, and hold prayer-meetings with his men. These meetings he usually conducted himself, often delivering extempore exhortations, in which he was not a little gifted. Sometimes a minister in the company preached, and in this way it is possible that some Cumberland Presbyterian minister preached in this Territory before Father Renick.

A wave of moral influence was started through the untiring efforts of Mr. Majors, whose effects will be seen and felt in eternity. But few men, if any, have such moral power in this country as that which he exercised. Would to God we had many more such elders. About the time to which reference has been made, he induced Father Renick to come to Nebraska City, paying him a good salary out of his own pocket to preach to his men while in camp. Father Renick came and preached for some months in a beautiful grove adjoining the city and known as the "Outfitting Grounds." Mr. Majors expected to secure the organization of a Cumberland Presbyterian Church, but Father Renick returned to Missouri, and the purpose was abandoned for the time. About this time one or two camp-meetings were held near this city by Mr. Majors, and perhaps some other Cumberland Presbyterians, in connection with brethren of the Methodist Episcopal church. Gracious revivals were enjoyed at these meetings, and many sinners were converted.

The first Cumberland Presbyterian Church organized in the Territory of Nebraska was at Nebraska City. The great civil war, and especially the troubles in Missouri consequent upon this war, had brought quite a large emigration to this city. Among these emigrants were [622] quite a number of Cumberland Presbyterians and Southern Methodists, who were as sheep without a shepherd. Business had called Mr. Majors and a few others here prior to this. The most of these united, temporarily, with the Methodist Episcopal church; but such were the political influences brought to bear in this church and from the pulpit during the exciting times of war, that it was impossible for them to live in peace here. They accordingly quietly withdrew. It was then proposed to find a home in the Presbyterian Church (O.S.). The Rev. J.G. Dalton, a worthy brother and member of the Lexington Presbytery of our church, being here at the time, did, by invitation, occupy the pulpit of that church for a few months. But such was the discourtesy with which the proposition to unite with that church was treated, that our brethren felt they could not find a congenial home with that people.

It was, perhaps, about this time that the Rev. O.D. Allen, from Missouri, gathered up a few Cumberland Presbyterians in the neighborhood of Rock Bluff, about eighteen miles above Nebraska City, and preached for them for a time. About the same time, perhaps a little later, the Rev. Mr. Starnes, of Missouri, commenced operations near Brownsville, some thirty miles below Nebraska City. His labors have since resulted in the organization of a respectable congregation of Cumberland Presbyterians.

Our people at Nebraska City, driven from the Methodist Episcopal church, and denied sympathy and encouragement when they sought to unite with the Presbyterian Church, were shut up to the necessity, as were our fathers, of an independent organization. Then the question came up, What kind of church should be organized--Cumberland Presbyterian, or Methodist Episcopal, South? The number of members was nearly equally divided between the two. The Rev. George W. Love, a minister in the latter church, very generously proposed that all should unite in the organization of a Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The Rev. C.B. Hodges, a Cumberland Presbyterian minister, was sent for, and, on the 16th day of July, 1865, the organization was effected, and the names of fifty-four members were enrolled. Five elders were elected, and Mr. Love was selected pastor temporarily. He and Mr. Hodges alternately and conjointly occupied the pulpit until the fall of 1866, during which time two extensive revivals of religion were enjoyed, in which many souls were converted and added to the church. A large and flourishing Sabbath School has been in successful operation ever since the organization of the church.

On the 28th of October, 1866, I took charge of the church, devoting all my time to its interests. On the 15th of December, 1867, a new and beautiful brick edifice, built entirely by the liberality of our own church [623] and some friends in the city, was dedicated. But many of our members from Missouri were here only temporarily, so that by the time we entered the new church, although about one hundred had been added since the organization, we were reduced to about fifty. Soon after entering the new church we were blessed with a powerful work of grace, and quite a number were added to the membership.

A sketch written in 1886 by another faithful worker in this field gives some of the same facts, but in different connections:

During the late civil war, many persons from Missouri and other border States came to Nebraska. Among these were some Cumberland Presbyterians. Russell, Majors & Co., the noted overland freighters, had established their headquarters in Nebraska City. Mr. Majors, being a Cumberland Presbyterian, and well acquainted in Missouri, had induced some ministers of that denomination to locate here. Among these were Robert Renick, C.B. Hodges, James G. Dalton, and Martin Hughes. A large, two-story frame building had been erected by Mr. Majors for a store-room. This building was used also as a place of worship by the few scattered members of our church in the city.

Here a series of meetings was held, resulting in a revival. Some time afterward it was decided to organize a church. On the 16th day of July, 1865, the first Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organized by Rev. C.B. Hodges. The Rev. G.W. Love became pastor, but was soon followed by the Rev. C.B. Hodges, who was very efficient in building up the church during his six months' pastorate.

In the spring of 1866, Rev. R.S. Reed, of Salem, Illinois, accepted a call from this church, and entered upon his work on the 28th of October the same year. Under his management the church prospered greatly, both in its spiritual and financial interests. A beautiful house of worship was erected on the corner of Tenth and Laramie streets, and dedicated December, 1867. The work on this building was begun

the first year of Mr. Reed's pastorate. In October, 1869, after three years of faithful service, he resigned.

In November, 1869, the Rev. J.B. Green, of Kentucky, took charge of this church. During his pastorate, the work so well begun by his predecessor has gone steadily on. There has been no change of pastor since 1869. For a number of years this congregation has been on a sound financial basis, and out of debt. The Sunday School was organized in July, 1865, and has prospered from the first, doing a good work.

Some time after the organization of the Nebraska City Church, a congregation was organized near Brownsville, Nemaha County. After a few years it built a good brick house of worship. This church has [624] had several pastors, and is now under the care of the Rev. B.J. Johnson. Eight or ten years ago, a congregation, known as the Weeping Water church, was established in Cass County. Some of its members had been connected with the Nebraska City church. This congregation has recently been merged into a new one, and is now known as the Factoryville church. A few years ago this church erected a neat frame meeting-house, and now holds services twice each Sabbath. The Rev. R.F. Powell is the pastor.

Later a congregation, first known as Harmony, was formed six miles west of Nebraska City. This organization was finally moved to the village of Dunbar, and it is now known as the Dunbar church. Its members have built a substantial frame house, and services are held each Sabbath. The Rev. R.A. Williams is now its pastor. Two or three other smaller congregations have been organized more recently.

All Nebraska was formerly included in the Leavenworth Presbytery, and in the Missouri Synod. In 1873 Leavenworth Presbytery was divided and the Nebraska Presbytery formed. The first meeting of this new presbytery was held at Harmony church on the 6th day of March, 1873. Rev. J.B. Green was the first moderator. The following ministers composed the presbytery: B.J. Johnson, J.B. Green, I. Wayne Snowden, J.C. Hamilton, and Amasa Rippetoe. Four congregations were represented at this meeting.

The missionary operations in this State have been mainly supported by home contributions. But little help has ever been received. The Board of Missions has never had a missionary or a mission in this State. Rev. R.F. Powell, under appointment from the board, labored for a few months, but his work was mostly confined to Kansas. The denomination has lost much in not giving more attention to this important territory. The Nebraska City congregation was never a mission church, but has been self-sustaining from its organization.

At the Assembly of 1886, the Nebraska Presbytery reported six ordained ministers, thirteen churches, four hundred and seventy-eight members, and four hundred and eighty-eight pupils in the Sunday Schools.


In 1872, the Rev. H.W. Eagan went to the new Territory of Washington. Without assistance from the Board of Missions he began his labors at the town of Walla Walla. With no house of worship, no organized congregation, and no private estate to rely on, he determined to cast himself upon the Lord for support, and give himself to the ministry among the pioneers. He preached [625] faithfully, and God put it into the hearts of the people to furnish him a temporal support. A working congregation was gathered, and a good church house built and paid for. When this faithful pioneer was no longer able to meet the growing demands of the work, an appeal was made to the Board of Missions for assistance. In answer to this call, the Rev. W.W. Beck was, in 1886, commissioned and sent to Walla Walla as missionary. To the General Assembly that year, this church reported sixty resident and sixty-six non-resident members, and church property valued at five thousand dollars.

The Rev. A.W. Sweeny has spent most of his life in the far West. In one of his letters, written in 1874, and published in the church paper, we get a glimpse of his work in Washington Territory. Describing one of his meetings, he says:

The Rev. H.W. Eagan, of Walla Walla, came on Monday. That night a large number of the anxious came forward. Some were converted every night during the week. The second Sabbath came. At night fifty-five came to the altar. We could not close the meeting. We were there the next Sabbath. At night forty-five were at the altar, and there were eleven professions. So we spent two weeks at that meeting. Certainly there had never been before, in this part of the country, such a deep religious interest felt.

The same letter shows how these pioneer missionaries went forth, trusting God for a support. Mr. Sweeny says:

The Rev. E.P. Henderson and myself visited Waitsburg and held a meeting, two years ago last September and October. He remained until spring with the little congregation which we organized here. I then took charge of it. I was alone, bishop, circuit rider, preacher, and exhorter. In the fall Brother Eagan came. God sent him. I gave him part of my field. Forty dollars a year was all the salary that he or I positively knew of. God has supported him. He has not lacked for any thing. The Rev. R.H. Wills came recently. I turned over to his support all but three of my contributing members of Waitsburg congregation. The way looks dark. What are we to do? A question often asked, and easily answered. Go forward, trust in God, and he will open the way. The additions at our camp-meeting will make up my loss by dividing with Brother Wills, I am slowly learning to "have faith in God." At Brother Eagan's basket meeting with his country congregation there were nine additions. So you see we have encouragement in this new country. God be praised!

[626] We now (1887) have in Washington Territory one presbytery, the Walla Walla, with twelve ordained preachers, four candidates for the ministry, eleven congregations, six hundred members, and five hundred pupils in the Sabbath Schools.

There are some ministers and members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Montana Territory, but no presbytery has been formed.


In the last twenty years, not only in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, but throughout all Christendom, the work of evangelists, both lay and clerical, has been among the wonderful things connected with religious activity and development. We have had our full share of those remarkable preachers. There seems to be a special movement in this direction, brought about by the Spirit of the living God. While there have no doubt been abuses, yet the great harvest of souls among those who were ready to perish is far too precious to permit us to doubt that God is in this work. One thing of special value is the use which these evangelists make of the Scripture. This is true pre-eminently in the work of our own evangelists, the Rev. R.G. Pearson and Dixon C. Williams.

One of our aged ministers once traveled some distance to attend the meetings of the Rev. R.J. Sims, another Cumberland Presbyterian evangelist. There was an immense congregation. The evangelist made a very simple, earnest address with no loud tones, violent gestures, or exciting appeals. The talk was conversational, and in subdued accents. Then the speaker asked those occupying the four pews in front of the pulpit to vacate them, to accommodate the penitents. To the aged preacher, who sat behind the evangelist, this seemed a foolish proceeding. "Four seats indeed!" thought he, "If one mourner comes forward it is more than I expect." The evangelist said: "Let all who want to be saved here today come quietly to these seats." In a few moments all the four seats were filled; then four more were called for and filled; then two more. The visiting preacher was amazed--almost frightened. He continued with that evangelist a week, and watched him closely, to find out how all this was accomplished. The first day and night he found that the evangelist spent about six hours [627] alone in prayer, and that he gathered two or three chosen ones to join him in short, special prayers. This was the daily programme. The secret of his success was that God was with him.

It is true that this evangelistic work puts into the hands of the pastors greatly increased labors in organizing and training converts. But this is not a valid objection. It would be inconsistent in parents to object to their children being converted in early life, because the duty of training the little believers rests upon fathers and mothers, and involves much prayer and patient labor; hardly less inconsistent is it for pastors to object to the sudden conversion of large numbers in their congregations. Would it be better to risk the eternal loss of all these souls than to have the pastor's labors and embarrassments multiplied?

In the Cumberland Presbyterian Church this modern method of evangelistic work began in 1873. For several years our people had just one evangelist at large. He visited nearly all the States in which the church had a membership, spending twelve years in this work. His was purely a life of faith, so far as the support of his family was concerned. He had no assurance of compensation, no contract with man, and no private means of his own; but neither he nor his family suffered for any of the necessaries of life. Such a life of trust brings a laborer into closer relations with God than any other life. It by no means includes the neglect of teaching the people their duty about money. In 1880 the church had twelve of these evangelists at large--men who "reported only to God." This does not include ministers sent out by synods or presbyteries.

Lay evangelists were a part of the original machinery of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. At first these were selected and commissioned by the presbytery, choice being made of men who had shown some fitness for the work. Of late years this custom had fallen into desuetude. One little experiment on the old plan, which was made a few years ago by Bethel Presbytery, in the Choctaw country, was thus described at the time by the Rev. W.S. Langdon in the Banner of Peace:

Some time since the Rev. I. Folsom furnished an account of the proceedings of Bethel Presbytery. The business was conducted in the [628] Choctaw language. It seems to have been a very spiritual meeting, and resulted in much immediate good. One item that I did not notice when I first read it, now strikes me more forcibly than any thing else in the record. This is probably because the subject is one that has occupied my thoughts a great deal recently. Here is the item: "During the meeting of the presbytery, loud Macedonian cries came up from different parts of the Nation. At first we were utterly at a loss to know what to do, as we had more fields already than we were able to supply, and as some of us were advanced in years, and were becoming infirm. For some time we remained silent, in deep, prayerful reflections. So, on the following day, after asking counsel of God, the presbytery determined to send forth the elders and deacons, and appoint exhorters to go and read the holy Scriptures to the people, sing and pray with them, and exhort in their meetings, until ministers could go round and baptize converts and organize them into churches according to the apostolic usage."

Here, I think, we have a perfect copy of the "Apostolic usage." Our Indian brethren have taken a step in the right direction, and have set their white brethren an example that it would be well For them to consider. Has not the Christian Church departed from the plan of ministerial labor and church extension devised by the great Head of the church?

For three hundred years the disciples and their successors operated upon a plan similar to that set forth in this extract from the proceedings of this Choctaw Presbytery. They went forth and preached, organizing churches, administering sacraments, and ordaining elders. Then they proceeded to some other place, leaving the new church members to conduct their own services. These services were very different from those held in the churches in this day. Then they met to study the Scriptures and learn what their duties were, and inquire what was the will of God concerning them. Their meetings were religious sociables. It was the privilege of every member to take part, under the rules prescribed by the apostles. Once in a while some of the ministers came round, and corrected any errors into which the converts had fallen, preaching to them and strengthening them by words of counsel. The people were thus aided and encouraged in their religious work, and they helped the preacher in his.

The error of the ministry for fifteen hundred years has been that it has taken the work of Bible-readings, religious discussion, and personal exhortation too much out of the hands of the people, and substituted sermons instead.

Lay preaching, but without presbyterial appointments, has been a prominent part of the evangelistic work of recent years. Among [629] our own lay preachers are Dixon C. Williams and General A.P. Stewart. General Stewart has never abandoned his secular business to go out as evangelist, but has preached a great deal. While he was chancellor of the University of Mississippi, he spent most of his vacations holding meetings, and these meetings were owned of Heaven, resulting in the conversion of many souls. Mr. Williams, familiarly known as "Dixie" Williams, gave up his business and his pleasant home, leaving his young wife and little children behind him, in order to devote his whole strength to preaching.

One of our old preachers, who knew Williams from childhood, speaks thus of him and his work:

When Dixie first became a church member, his life was a disappointment. He is of the stock to which Thomas Calhoun belonged, and I hoped he would become a preacher. I was troubled to find his life not what I hoped for. Then Hammond came along, and Dixie got worked over, and went to holding meetings in the by-ways and hedges. I went to hear him. I had been all the time thinking of my former disappointment. He rose, and, with deep feeling, made confession about past failures, and declared his fixed determination, by God's grace to be what he professed--out and out the Lord's. He is doing just that, and the Lord is using him. It is a curious fact that both in the early and the recent history of Cumberland Presbyterians, our most successful preachers have been Christians worked over.

Many of our evangelists prefer the plan of "reporting only to God," and never publish any accounts of their meetings. It is, therefore, not easy to obtain details of their work.


In 1810 there were three Cumberland Presbyterian preachers; no churches. In 1812 we had eight preachers and thirty-three congregations. In 1829 there were eighteen presbyteries, and a General Assembly was organized. The number of ministers and churches at that time is unknown. In 1842 there were fifty-three presbyteries; other statistics unknown. In 1860 the church had ninety-seven presbyteries, and not less than fifteen chartered colleges. The total membership was estimated at one hundred thousand, twenty thousand of whom were colored people. In 1887, [630] notwithstanding the loss of all its colored members and ministers, the church had one hundred and nineteen presbyteries, fifteen hundred and sixty-three ministers, two thousand five hundred and forty congregations, and over a hundred and forty-five thousand members.

The small number of candidates for the ministry and licentiates --less than one third the number of ordained ministers--is a discouraging feature in our recent denominational statistics. The old-time plan of going to God with fasting and prayer, and asking him to call more men to the work of the ministry should be revived. There was a time when parents solemnly asked the Lord to lead their own sons into this sacred calling. It would be well if such personal prayers were still daily offered by parents. In nearly every thing else our progress is most hopeful. In giving money systematically to missions and other church work there is steady and encouraging growth. In a few years more, at the present rate of advancement, our people will not be ashamed of financial comparisons. There is a heresy of the pocket and the life which is worse than heresy in the creed. The Moravians, it is said, are the freest of all people from this practical heresy--this financial disloyalty to Jesus. It would be well if a good large Moravian element could enter into our membership.

A most hopeful sign of progress is the increasing number of regular pastors. A far larger proportion of our congregations now have permanently settled ministers, giving their whole time to the work, than at any former period. Another most potent auxiliary to church progress is the very large circulation of the church paper. Never before was so large a number of our members reached through our own weekly organ. If its subscription extended to every family in the church, all our congregations and all our enterprises would be quickened into new life.

Another auxiliary to this progress is the improved condition of our theological school. The encouraging success of the endowing agent gives promise that this school will soon be furnished with a full faculty, and equipped with all needed facilities for its work. When this is done, will not Dr. Beard bend over the battlements of heaven and weep tears of rapture over the realization of is hopes and the answer to his prayers?

[631] Some comfort in our deficiencies and hope for our future growth may be derived from comparisons. The Presbyterian Church in America in 1819 was about one hundred and fourteen years old--that is, about thirty-seven years older than ours is today. At that date it had, in all America, eleven synods and fifty-three presbyteries. It had no Board of Publication and no Board of Foreign Missions. Its Board of Domestic Missions was only two years old. It is true that this slow progress may have been caused in part by the revolutionary war, and adverse influences in colonial times; but there were difficulties and hindrances in the early days of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church scarcely less embarrassing.

In a letter written by Rev. John L. Dillard, in 1883, when he was over ninety years old, he says, "I think the outlook of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church is very bright. I think increasing attention is paid to experimental and spiritual religion. So far as I can learn the facts, God is greatly blessing the work of our ministry." On the subject of doctrines, also, this veteran gives utterance to the belief that our people are maintaining the original purity and soundness of the faith.

We have a far larger number of real scholars now than ever before; but our spirituality will not stand comparison with that which once made all our pulpits a blaze of fire. A young preacher, talking recently to one of our old men, used something like these words: "Doctor, how is it that so few of our preachers ever have any earnest, spiritual conversations with each other. You and Dr. M. are about the only ministers I think of now who ever seem to desire such conversation." All this was vastly different once. John Barnett used to say that he made it an invariable rule to speak at least a few words for Jesus in every conversation he held with his fellowmen. Something for Jesus, some little word for eternity in every conversation, every letter, every visit, would make a vast difference in the aggregate influence of a lifetime.


In preparing such a history as this, an author necessarily studies many subjects which he can not discuss in his book. The impression on his own mind is far broader and deeper than that which [632] he can convey to his readers. Some few thoughts growing out of these unrecorded impressions are now to be presented. Our people will perhaps be startled by the declaration that Ewing, King, and McAdow were not the first Cumberland Presbyterians. Yet in a very important sense this declaration is true. Every sacred principle, for which the men of 1800 struggled and suffered, had been struggled for and suffered for in the Presbyterian Church of Scotland before any white man's cabin stood on the soil of Tennessee.

The study of Hetherington is like reading over again the history of McGready's difficulties. It was the injected element, thrust by the State into the true Presbyterian Church, which opposed revivals, which objected to laymen leading in prayer, which trampled down the rights of presbyteries, as Lyle's synodical commission did. It was the same old struggle, when field meetings in Kentucky took on the form they bore so long ago in the land of our forefathers. The same old struggle between a hide-bound fatality and a liberalized Calvinism had sprung up in almost every revival the Presbyterians of past generations ever had. The same struggle to reach the perishing masses, without being held back by conditional red tape, had involved revival Presbyterians in controversies long before the Cumberland Presbyterian Church was born.

Our church was raised up to be the conservator of evangelical, liberal Presbyterianism.

The first Cumberland Presbyterian preachers all belonged to the Scotch-Irish race. They were soldiers' sons, ecclesiastically, and they felt bound to walk erect, but none the less were they genuine Presbyterians. Their true kinsmen, ecclesiastically, must ever be sought in the liberal party of the Presbyterian Church. There have always been two schools or shades of doctrine among Calvinists. Of later years there are many minor shades, but even in the Westminster Assembly there were two shades of doctrine Our doctrines are no new element in Presbyterianism There has been a scarlet thread of the same sort running through the whole woof from the first. The doctrine of grace, a belief in the divine influence of the Holy Spirit extending to all hearts, and the divine longing for the salvation of all lost sinners, has in every age been [633] found in the church. When liberal Calvinists work in revivals, they become practically Cumberland Presbyterians. We have not even added any new measures, except it be camp-meetings. Itinerant evangelism, and even lay evangelism were among the earliest measures adopted by the revival party in the Scotch Presbyterian Church.

Our church is a conservator of the best and holiest elements of revival Presbyterianism. The mother church is our debtor in these things. We are her debtor, too, in many things. From the liberal element in her doctrines our theology is derived--the Bible system, which makes salvation the gift of God, while it makes death the wages of sin. We are indebted to her for our whole system of church government, and for that revival policy which rests on God s truth and God's Holy Spirit given in answer to prayer, and not on any human device. We are also indebted to her for the system of settled pastorates. Though it was impossible for our preachers and congregations to adopt this system at first, we have ever clung to it in theory, and are now struggling to establish it throughout the denomination.

We owe the mother church a large debt also in the matter of ministerial education. Even the abuse and misrepresentations of our methods and policy by some of her writers did us great service. That some of our presbyteries had drifted into laxness can not be called in question, but the worthy example of the Presbyterian Church through her whole history has all the while been calling us to higher things. Her schools and her literature have been trumpet voices in our hearing. Above all else her theological schools have been precious examples to our people. Cumberland Presbyterians, in their efforts to make their seminary all that it should be, find great help in the history of similar institutions built by Presbyterians. When our young men have sought better facilities than our own school could furnish, they have nearly always gone to the schools of liberal Calvinists--seldom or never to those of the Methodists. The number of such young men has been very large.

Our natural and historic affinities are with the Reformed churches. We have taken our place in the Presbyterian Alliance; now, let us maintain it. If there are driftings in another direction they prom [634] ise no good to our cause. Let us hold to our anchorage. Let us cling to the system of doctrine which has been so blessed of Heaven in our denominational career. Let us have done with the battles about decrees. Fatality is nowhere preached now. There is no use in forever fighting it. Organization, drill, work, missions, progress, souls immortal, are the prizes now to be struggled for; and in most of this work the Presbyterian Church will furnish models for our imitation.




The sources from which these anecdotes are derived are the church papers, and manuscript accounts written by eye-witnesses. The incidents described in the manuscripts are so numerous that it is impossible to put them all in this short chapter. Selections have been made of such only as give the greatest promise of usefulness. These anecdotes belong to all periods of the church's history. We begin the list with those dating farthest back, but are not careful to preserve any exact chronological order afterward.

ANECDOTE OF Mrs. SAMUEL KING. The wife of Rev. Samuel King was a daughter of Joseph Dixon, of the Presbyterian Church. Her son, the Rev. R.D. King, published the following anecdote of his mother. The scene of this incident was Mrs. King's girlhood's home, in the wilds of Tennessee. The people were exposed to attacks from hostile savages, and every settlement had its fort:

On one occasion, early in the morning, something attracted Mr. Dixon's attention in the direction of the fort to which he belonged. He immediately took his rifle in his hand, and cautiously proceeded about one hundred or one hundred and fifty yards from the door of his cabin. His manner was so unusual as to attract little Anna's attention. She stood in the door watching her father with a throbbing heart, though she knew not why. Suddenly a band of savage warriors sprang from where they had been concealed, and, in a moment, Joseph Dixon lay a corpse.

The savages, with hideous yells, rushed for the house. Anna's only safety now lay in flight. She determined to reach the fort, which was [636] six miles distant. With a sagacity and determination that far surpassed her years, she commenced her flight. Soon she heard the band of savages yelling behind her; but she evaded them, and after a while all but one of the Indians ceased their pursuit. The race between the two at last became a silent race for life, in which a child in her twelfth year fled from a young athletic warrior. Often the blood-thirsty pursuer would hurl his tomahawk with all his power, at his intended victim; yet each time it fell harmless, not at her feet, but far beyond her.

As they approached the fort, the man who was on guard saw the race and threw open the gate. Just as the little girl sprang in, the cruel and determined savage poised himself steadily, and as the last fearful act of his life, hurled his tomahawk at her as she lay fainting from exhaustion. But, as before, the weapon missed its aim, and fell far beyond her. At the report of the sentinel's rifle, the pursuer fell dead twenty or twenty-five steps from the gate of the fort.

A TIMELY ARRIVAL. The Rev. Lee Roy Woods published the following incident connected with the history of the church in Pennsylvania:

Morgan's health, never very robust, had, by travel and incessant labor, become very much impaired, and he had arranged to leave Pennsylvania for the South at the close of the Waynesburg meeting. Aston remained in Washington County. This would leave Bryan alone. December had come, the cold was becoming intense, and Morgan had to leave. The hearts of these two men, Morgan and Bryan, had become knit together as the hearts of Jonathan and David. The idea of being separated, especially at this time, was very painful. It had been arranged that they should spend the night together at the house of a Mr. Jennings, one mile out of Waynesburg, and that one of them should preach in this private residence. The religious interest was still very deep, and at an early hour the house was filled. Every room was crowded; the hall and the stairway were packed with people, anxious to hear. Morgan was too ill to sit up, and was compelled to leave the room, and lie on a bed upstairs. Bryan was expected to preach.

Just before service began a stranger came to the gate. His clothing and appearance indicated that he was a traveler on a long journey. His apparel was rather plain and somewhat worn. He was evidently suffering from the severe cold, and the fatigue of the day's travel. He inquired for the Rev. A.M. Bryan. Who was this stranger? What was he, and what did he want with the minister? These thoughts passed through the minds of any and all were anxious for an explanation. [637] Bryan came to the door. One glance at the stranger, and in an instant he was at the gate, grasping the hand of the newcomer, and bidding him to alight and come in. He then introduced him as his dear friend and fellow-laborer from Kentucky, the Rev. Milton Bird. Bryan was relieved; Bird would preach. Bryan ran up stairs to tell Morgan that Bird had come just at a time when help was indispensable. They both wept for joy, thanking God and taking courage. Bryan would not now be left alone.

Morgan was too ill to come down to take part in the service. He was intensely anxious to hear the man who was to take his place when he was gone. He said: "I listened closely, but I heard but little of the prayer; I was disappointed, I felt discouraged, I tried to pray God to help the new preacher. The first part of the sermon I lost entirely. I grew more despondent. But as the discourse progressed, and the speaker began to warm with his subject, I could hear an occasional sentence. I was favorably impressed. As he proceeded, and I began to hear more distinctly, I became more deeply interested. I found myself sitting on the side of the bed. In that position I could hear every sentence, and my feelings became more deeply enlisted. I went to the head of the stairway; I was delighted. There was thought, there was reason, there was the Bible, there was logic in every sentence. His words were falling like burning coals on the hearts and consciences of his hearers. The close was a most happy one. I went back to my bed, weeping tears of joy, and feeling that our cause was safe in the hands of such men as Bryan and Bird."

A QUARREL SETTLED BY A SONG. The following was also published by the Rev. Lee Roy Woods:

On a certain occasion, when a large congregation was assembled to hear Mr. Bryan preach, a dispute arose between the Presbyterians and our people, in reference to which were entitled to the use of the house at a certain hour. Many present forgot the proprieties of the time and place, and the controversy became very hot and unchristian in spirit. In the midst of their wrangling and contention, Mr. Bryan rose up in the pulpit and began to sing, in a clear, solemn voice the hymn,

Amazing grace! how sweet the sound,

That saved a wretch like me.

The effect was wonderful. Before the first stanza was completed, the storm of passion was stilled, and all were silent. Before "the sweet singer" had completed the closing lines,

And God who called me here below

Shall be forever mine,

[638] tears in many eyes proclaimed the deep emotion of the audience. At the close of the hymn, the difficulty was amicably and lovingly adjusted, and the two denominations continued to occupy the house with uninterrupted good feeling and harmony.

CONQUERED BY KINDNESS. This camp-meeting anecdote was published in one of the church papers:

Once at a camp-meeting, before the first service commenced, a huckster wagon drove up. The man had given great trouble at a meeting held by members of another denomination a few weeks before, and had been fined heavily for disturbing religious worship. The Rev. J.M. Berry proposed that all the preachers and people present should visit the huckster in a body. This plan was adopted, and Mr, Berry began a friendly conversation with the huckster. The man stated that he did not wish to create any disturbance, and that he did not sell intoxicating liquor. Mr. Berry said "Our intention is to worship God." He pointed out the good effects of religion. "Now," said he to the huckster, "if you intend to do no harm, but wish to do good, will you not promise us that you will attend preaching when we do, and, when the services are not going on, supply those who wish to purchase any thing you have for sale?" "Yes," said he, "if you will agree that I may take my position near the camps, so that I may be in sight, should any one be disposed to disturb my wagon." This also was agreed to. "But," said Mr. Berry, "the Sabbath is not our time, and none of us have the right to buy or sell on that holy day. You will also agree not to wound the feelings of the good people, and sin against God, by keeping open on the Sabbath." The man agreed to this also. He kept his word in every particular, and wept like a child under preaching. On Sabbath he carried his cakes around in armfuls, and distributed them gratuitously among the camp-holders and their children. On Monday morning he left us. He reported that Cumberland Presbyterians were all gentlemen.

THROUGH HEAD AND HEART. When Samuel M. Aston was preaching in Pennsylvania he visited one of our churches in which a learned Universalist had proved too powerful in argument for the session and the pastor. When told of the case, Aston replied: "I will shoot him through the head Sunday morning, and through the heart Sunday night." At the service Sabbath morning Aston's sermon swept away all the arguments of the Universalist, till he writhed and groaned in his [639] seat. At night, Aston's presentation of Christ's dying love to lost sinners melted the poor man to tears, and won him to a personal trust in Christ alone for salvation.

TARDINESS CURED. The Rev. Samuel M. Aston began his labors with a Pennsylvania congregation whose people were rather noted for their tardiness in attending the services. When he had preached once or twice, and had discovered how slow the people were, he announced that there would be services the next Sabbath at 10:30 o'clock precisely. The people did not notice, particularly, the emphasis he placed on the last word. The next Sabbath, punctual to the minute, Mr. Aston arose and began the services, though not more than a dozen members of his usually large congregation were in attendance. His discourse was a little shorter than usual, and his congregation was dismissed and the people on their way home by 11:30 o'clock. It was amusing to see the tardy worshipers coming in. Some arrived just as the preacher was closing his discourse, some during the last hymn, and some just in time for the benediction; while the latest stragglers met the returning congregation, and turned homeward without reaching the church. On the next Sabbath, at 10:30 o'clock precisely, the people were all in their seats, waiting for the services to begin.

"THE ROOT OF THE MATTER." Here is a little picture of Dr. Beard's as a school-boy, drawn by himself in an article in the Banner of Peace. It shows that if a student has "the root of the matter" in him, he will somehow find the road to noble attainments.

I made up my mind to preach. It was a great trial, but I had, in a great measure, to "let the dead bury their dead." In the course of the winter I had the opportunity of spending a few weeks at what seemed a good school. A young man, who was preparing for the Methodist ministry, was teaching in one of our congregations, and I bought Murray's English Grammar and turned in with him. His stock of knowledge, however, was soon exhausted, and I had not learned much about the grammar. But in the following spring a good old patriarchal elder of the church heard of my case. He lived within four miles of one of the best schools in the country. He proposed to board me a few months [640] gratuitously, if I could stand the walk to that school. I thought of nothing but being able to stand it. A neighboring congregation made me up seven dollars and a half for the purchase of necessary books. I bought Cumming's Geography and Atlas, Ferguson's Astronomy Abridged, Watts' Logic, and the whole set of Murray's Practical Exercises, Key, etc., and set myself earnestly to work for the summer. My reader will perhaps smile, but I can not help it; this was my literary outfit. I think I had the root of the matter in me. I walked the four miles in the morning, and back in the evening, over a hilly road, day in and day out. I literally committed to memory large portions of Watts' Logic. I studied every thing with a mind to it; I had crossed the Rubicon; my heart was upon the ministry. I did a good work that summer. My testimonials from that school are still in my possession--fifty-three years old. They were read at the following meeting of the presbytery by one of the old men and pronounced very good.

ANECDOTE OF THE REV. R.D. MORROW. One of the church papers many years ago published the following anecdote:

About the year 1820 the legislature of Missouri was in session at the town of Saint Charles. The Hon. John Miller, a Cumberland Presbyterian, was the representative from Howard County. The Rev. Mr. R., who was then regarded as the giant of the Baptist Church in Missouri, visited Saint Charles, and preached to the legislature on this text: "For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven." The next day the Hon. Henry S. Guyer, of Saint Louis, also a member of the legislature, approached Mr. Miller, and criticized the sermon, remarking that Mr. R.'s views of law were unsound, and that, before a competent jury, his reasoning could easily be torn into fragments. Mr. Miller replied: "We have a little circuit rider up in our country who can preach law which you can not tear to pieces." A few weeks afterward, on returning to his room, Mr. Miller found that his "little circuit rider "--the Rev. R.D. Morrow--had called to see him. It was arranged for Morrow to preach in the Senate chamber. Mr. Miller took special pains to notify Mr. Guyer to attend. The hour arrived, and a promiscuous crowd of lawmakers and law violators had assembled. When the preacher entered the door, and walked down the long aisle of the chamber, dressed in plain homespun jeans, with his saddlebags on his arm, all eyes were turned to get a view of Mr. Miller's circuit rider. Mr. Morrow's unprepossessing appearance caused many eyes, among them Mr. Guyer's, to be turned upon Mr. Miller, [641] with an inquiring glance, as much as to say, "Is that your law preacher?" The services proceeded. Strange as it may seem, Mr. Morrow, without any knowledge of what had passed on the former occasion, announced the same subject upon which Mr. R. had preached. In a few minutes the audience was spell-bound, and for one hour many hearts were made to burn within them, while the preacher opened up God's glorious plan of justification and redemption. Even Mr. Guyer could not refrain from emotion; and as they walked out of the chamber he said to Mr. Miller, "That law will do; I can't pick any flaws in that man's views of law."

THE RULING PASSION STRONG IN DEATH. When the Rev. R.D. King lay dying the members of his congregation resolved to visit him in a body. King was notified of their coming; and, when his beloved flock were gathered around him, he had them bring him his Bible and prop him up in bed. Taking a text, he then proceeded to preach them a sermon. The voice was feeble; the body was sinking into the grave; but his soul was filled with God's Spirit; and an unconverted woman that day, in that chamber of the dying saint, found Jesus and salvation. He had been in the ministry sixty-two years, and winning souls had been his ruling passion through all these years. For that work he had patiently borne the most wonderful hardships, and he rejoiced on his death-bed that he had been counted worthy of suffering such hardships for Christ's sake. So, greatly to his delight, God used him even in death in bringing one more soul into everlasting light. O happy servant he whom his Master finds thus watching! King's death was at his Texas home, in 1883. He was then past his threescore and ten, and glad to meet his summons home to heaven.

COMFORT THROUGH FAITHFULNESS.(38) In Mississippi, forty years ago, there was a young lady who, in her childhood, had professed conversion, but had afterward fallen into doubt. Her doubts grew upon her, and at the annual camp-meeting she sought counsel of the preachers and other Christians, and struggled alone in prayer to God for light and comfort. But she found no relief; the darkness was not dispelled, but grew [642] thicker. Finally she settled it in her heart that she had committed the unpardonable sin, and was hopelessly lost. Along with this conclusion came also the determination to spend all the rest of her life in laboring to keep others from falling into the same lamentable condition. When the usual call for mourners came at the next service, she began to act on her resolution. Going to a seat filled with unconverted young ladies, she told them that she was herself hopelessly lost, but she wanted her young friends to escape so bitter a destiny. One of them rose and went to the mourner's bench, saying she felt as if a lost spirit had been sent from the dead to warn her. Others followed her example. The despairing messenger still went with her warnings among the young people, and at last a large number of her associates were among the happy converts. Then all her doubts forever vanished, and from that day she has lived in the sweet assurance of her own salvation.

ANECDOTE OF THE REV. F.M. FINCHER. Many years ago the Methodists were holding a camp-meeting in the neighborhood where the Rev. F.M. Fincher, of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, lived. The meeting dragged through its allotted time without any conversions. The campers advised the presiding elder to close the meeting. The congregation was at that time gathered in front of "the stand." The elder asked Mr. Fincher to say a few words, intending then to close the meeting. Fincher rose and stood for some moments in front of the stand, silently weeping. Then he quoted Jeremiah 9:1: "O that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears," and proceeded to make an earnest exhortation. The Holy Spirit was poured out; mourners were called; conversions followed. The meeting was protracted, and was given over almost entirely into Fincher's hands. There was a great spiritual victory whose fruits still abide.

Mr. Fincher and the Rev. John Nicholson, of the same presbytery, were comrades in toil, and their labors were often blessed with gracious results similar to those just described. To this day the people of Mississippi remember a sermon preached by Nicholson, when he was so worn down with toil that he could scarcely stand [643] on his feet. Every sentence from his lips went like an arrow to the people's hearts. At the close of that wonderful sermon a little boy led the prayer, and people said it was an angel's voice pleading for sinners. This boy afterward became a minister of the gospel.

A MISSOURI CAMP-MEETING. The year 1854 was one of great drought in some parts of Missouri, the severest ever known to the people of that State. It continued from June 1854 to May 1855. Trees died, stock perished, people were in extreme suffering for lack of water. The "Salt Fork" Cumberland Presbyterian Church had a pretty large membership. About one third of these members wanted to hold their annual camp-meeting, drought or no drought. The other two thirds earnestly objected, and positively refused to cooperate. Only three families were willing to move to the encampment. Still the minority resolved to hold the meeting. They secured the services of the Rev. J.B. Morrow, and the Rev. P.G. Rea. They got permission to use a dry well near the camp-ground. From a big spring, three miles distant, they hauled water in barrels and filled the well. By keeping a wagon constantly running all through the meeting, they kept a supply of water in this reservoir. At first only a few people were present. Part of the few were rowdies who attended for the purpose of making disturbance, and for several days resorted to various methods of interrupting the services. At last some of them went so far as to pretend to be seeking religion. The instructions which these pretended mourners received were such as to make their ears tingle. Finally they became so frightened at the solemnity of the meeting, that they ran away. Then their leader began to feel real conviction, and sought his Savior in good earnest. In spite of drought, opposing members, and lawless rowdies, God blessed his faith fill servants with a gracious revival. About seventy conversions were counted among the results of the meeting.

THE BARN MEETING. In 1851 there was in Saline County, Missouri, a neighborhood which had no church of any denomination. The Rev. P.G. Rea made arrangements to hold an outdoor meeting in a grove near a [644] large barn in that neighborhood. Rain setting in, the services were held in the barn. There was good interest, and the meetings were continued two weeks. One of the mourners was a bright little girl whose father was an unconverted man. This father feigned to be sick, and kept away from the meetings more than a week, but his wife was praying for him. At last, on Sabbath, he ventured to attend. That day his daughter was still a mourner, but before the services ended she was converted. Then she went to her father and asked him to seek his Savior. He promptly agreed to do so, and went with her to the mourner's bench, where he also found peace in believing. Though now old, he still maintains a consistent Christian life. This meeting in the barn was the origin of the Mount Horeb church.

A TRIAL AND A TRIUMPH. In Logan County, Kentucky, in the great revival of 1800, a youthful daughter of George McLean became a Christian. Her father was at that time a gambler, distiller, and man of the world generally. The daughter, Elizabeth, was a disturbing element in the godless revels of the family. The father tried through several of her associates to win her back to a worldly life. Then, as now, the dance was relied upon as the entering wedge to divide asunder the Christian and the Savior. But all efforts to entangle Elizabeth in this snare of Satan utterly failed. Then her father changed his tactics. As she would not go to balls, he resolved to have one at his own house. When the guests were assembled, and all inducements had failed to make her dance, he said to her: "You profess to go by your Bible. The Bible commands you to obey your parents. I now order you positively to dance the next set with me, your father." She obeyed, but spent the time while she was dancing in solemn prayer to God for the conversion of her father. Her face was pale, her countenance sad, her eyes were filled with tears. All present felt impressed by her conduct. Her father broke down, publicly asked her pardon, and began to pray for salvation. He never rested until he became a rejoicing Christian. Other members of the family were brought into the fold. Year after year McLean was found in his tent at old Mount Moriah camp-ground, ready to cooperate with Chapman and Harris in [645] their annual camp-meetings. The family all became Christians, and have all of them made their record among the best workers of our church. When it became necessary for him to move to another neighborhood, where there was no camp-ground, Mr. McLean established one. He built five camps, and agreed to furnish all the provisions if his neighbors would occupy his camps and feed the people. Elder A.J. McLean was his son, and the Rev. George D. McLean, of precious memory, was his grandson.

ANOTHER DANCING INCIDENT. In 1867 in a Tennessee town lived a beautiful and wealthy lady who was fond of dancing. There was a revival in the town, and the only daughter of this fashionable lady was among the converts. She wanted to join the church, but her parents opposed. The pastor visited them, and discussed the question very earnestly with them. They said: "No; she shall not join. You would not let her dance, and we intend her to be a society woman." They carried their point. A society woman she became. She is still a society woman, but the scene of her sad career has changed. She now leads a life of shame in the great city, and the mother lives with her daughter. The tree is known by its fruits.

A WAR INCIDENT. At the battle of Murfreesboro, Rev. W.P. McBryde, who was afterward chaplain, went along with his regiment. After the great battle was over, he found a bullet hole in his shoe, another in his haversack, and another through the back of his coat. A ball had torn off the front part of his vest pocket. Another had passed between his sleeve and breast, cutting the coat. Taking out his Bible from his side pocket for his regular scripture reading that night, he found a bullet hole through the Bible. And yet McBryde himself had received no wound. Some will say all such things are the result of chance, or of nature's laws; and some of us prefer seeing the protecting hand of a loving Father shielding a life for which he still had other uses.

A CASE OF FASTING AND PRAYER. The Rev. R.J. Sims was holding a meeting in Arkansas. Two sisters were attending, one a Christian, the other not. The [646] Christian sister asked Sims what he thought about fasting. He is an earnest believer in its efficacy. He gave the young lady incidents pointing to the divine blessing on fasting as a means of grace. She resolved to observe a protracted season of fasting and prayer for her sister's conversion. At the closing hour of her appointed fast she was seated beside that sister in the church. Up to this time no indications of any answer to her prayer had been given. The unconverted sister had made no public demonstration of interest or concern; but now she rose to her feet, and, extending her hand, said very quietly: "Your prayers are answered; I am saved." Going through the congregation in the same quiet way, she communicated the same intelligence to her friends and acquaintances. Her life since that day gives evidence of genuine conversion.

A GAINSAYER CONVERTED. At one of Mr. Sims' meetings, a woman who ridiculed experimental religion, carried her Bible to church and made a vigorous canvass among the mourners, trying to prove that the minister's teachings about repentance, and faith, and the love of God in the heart were unscriptural and false. She was noisy, insolent, and persistent. Sims inquired about her, and learned that her parents were good Methodists. Taking an elder with him to the grove, the two joined in prayer to God for the fulfillment of the promise made in Psalms 74:10-12. The meetings went on, and the mocker pursued her opposition. Then her daughter was among the rejoicing converts. The mother railed on her, argued with her, but the daughter, after hearing respectfully all that her mother had to say, replied calmly: "I can not but testify to what I know and feel in my own soul. I know I am happy in Jesus." At this the mother fell prostrate and began praying for salvation. She continued to seek, until she was enabled to testify before the whole congregation that she now knew for herself the reality of that spiritual experience which she had ridiculed. Members of her church then interfered, and took her home. They said she was crazy. Her husband was absent, driving stock to market. They wrote to him that his wife had lost her reason. He sacrificed his stock? and hurried home, expecting to find his wife a hopeless [647] wreck. To his delight he found her in her right mind more than she had ever been before. After a few days' observation he went to the church of which he and his wife had both been members, and asked them to take his name off their rolls.

A BAND OF ROWDIES CONQUERED. At one of the meetings which Mr. Sims held in Arkansas, a band of unconverted men determined to break up the meeting. Sims went to God in fasting and prayer. The wife and daughter of the ringleader of the band became deeply concerned about their souls, and went to the mourner's bench. This enraged the wicked man. At the next service he took his stick and went with his family to church, declaring it to be his purpose to beat the preacher with his stick. Sims, who had just ended one of his seasons of fasting and prayer, made his usually solemn though simple talk, and then started through the congregation to the spot where the man with his stick was seated. There was a power in the preacher's presence which made this boastful opposer of religion tremble. Along with this power, given in answer to prayer, the minister showed that fearlessness which the conscious assurance of divine protection always imparts. As Sims approached, the ruffian retreated, leaving the church and going to his home. The wife and daughter were converted that day, and when they entered their house they found the wicked man prostrate in prayer. He was at last converted and went to work for other lost souls. He held prayers in his family, and gave of his money freely to the cause of Christ. Other violent opposers were also reached by the Holy Spirit, and became part of the praying band.

THE KEYSTONE OF THE ARCH. When the Rev. W.H. Crawford was young in the ministry, he and another minister held a series of meetings not far from his home in East Tennessee. The congressman for that district was present. While this man was very popular, he was not a Christian, and his presence was a terror to the young preachers. During the sermon, however, the preacher forgot the fear of man, and proclaimed with power the plain truth of God. The congressman was in tears. Seeing this, Mr. Crawford went to him when the sermon [648] closed, and said: "Mr.C., you need no argument from me to convince you that you ought to be a Christian." He answered: "I do not." The preacher said: "There is one thing more that you ought to know, if you do not already know it. You are standing in the way of others."

The congressman rose to his feet, and speaking aloud, said: "I want it distinctly understood that I will stand in the way of nobody. If you want to be Christians, come along with me to the mourner's bench." Grasping a prominent friend in each hand, he led the way to the place of prayer. There were sixty conversions there that day, Including nearly all the adult sinners of the neighborhood. A church was organized, a house built, and Crawford was called to be pastor of the new flock. In this relation he remained for many years. The congregation still lives.

A PRESBYTERIAN ELDER CONVINCED. At this meeting just described, there was a Presbyterian elder who had been bitterly prejudiced against "the Cumberlands." When, however, he saw the conversion of the congressman, and after that the conversion of his own children, his prejudices were all swept away, and he became as demonstrative in his religious raptures as any one else at the meeting. This elder, like thousands of others in that day, had been taught to believe that "Cumberlands" and "New Lights" were one and the same, and that our church had no written creed, but was opposed to Confessions of Faith.

A CHRISTMAS PARTY. The unconverted young men of an East Tennessee neighborhood met to decide how to enjoy the approaching Christmas. After some conversation it was proposed to send for the Rev. W.H. Crawford, have a meeting, all of them agreeing to seek their souls' salvation. The proposition was adopted, and a petition was drawn up stating that they desired Mr. Crawford to come and hold a meeting with a view to their conversion. They all signed the petition. Mr. Crawford complied with their request. At the first service he read the petition to the congregation. One dear old Methodist shouted when he heard the paper read. The meetings [649] were wonderfully successful. About one hundred conversions were reported. Among these were all but one of the young men who had signed the petition. One declared it to be a mere joke. He mocked at the meeting, and opposed it. A few days afterward, in the same church at a public meeting, he was attacked with a sudden illness, and fell dead from his pew.

TWO CASES CONTRASTED. On the last day of one of our great camp-meetings in the olden time, a preacher was going silently about among the people, talking with the unconverted. One of the persons whom he approached was a young man named Joe. After some preliminaries Joe said: "I have deliberately made up my mind to wait till the Providence camp-meeting, two weeks from now, and then to seek religion." Afterward the preacher had a conversation with a young lady who was also unconverted. She said, "I don't intend to leave this camp ground till I find my Savior." She kept her word. When the last service was over and the congregation was dismissed, she refused to go away. Some friends remained with her, and at two o'clock that night she found peace in believing. The next week she and Joe both died. Joe said, with his last breath, "Lost, forever lost!" The young lady, with her last breath, proclaimed the joys of salvation. Her face was radiant with heavenly light even until the pulses ceased to beat.

A DEFEAT CHANGED TO VICTORY. Bethel and Shiloh were the names of two camp-grounds in West Tennessee where the beloved Robert Baker used to win many a triumph as God's own chosen minister. After Christ called Baker home, there was one camp-meeting at Bethel which, though attended by even larger congregations than usual, seemed to be an utter failure. The last day of the meeting came. The campers loaded their wagons to return to their homes. They were disappointed and sad. Never before had Bethel camp-meeting closed without any conversions. Parents were there who had been looking fondly to that meeting as the time when their unconverted children would be brought to the Lord. There were many bowed heads and heavy hearts ,Although the wagons were all loaded [650] and every thing ready for going home, still all seemed reluctant to leave the encampment. Men were seated silently about the camps; women were weeping. Mrs. Lou. Bigham was one of the best Christians in that neighborhood. She sat with her head bowed upon a table, not weeping, but praying. After a while her prayers grew articulate. Then they became audible. Others seated about also began to pray. In a few moments there was a girdle of prayer around the encampment. It was not social prayer, but each one prayed apart. Some lay prostrate, some were on their knees, and some were seated. After a few moments more Mrs. Bigham's voice rang with the accents of victory. God had given her assurance that her prayer was accepted. The power of the Spirit touched the unconverted, and soon in every tent there was some poor sinner seeking salvation. Outside, scattered here and there, were little groups of praying ones bowed together with some anxious inquirers after salvation. No dinner was eaten. At night the wagons were unloaded, and public services were held. Before that meeting closed the names of more than two hundred converts had been enrolled. Among these converts were several young men who afterward became ministers of the gospel.

A MOTHER'S PRAYERS. About forty-eight years ago the grandmother of the Rev. J.N. McDonald was living with her son, Alexander McDonald, in Vermillion County, Illinois. She was a devoted member of the Presbyterian Church, but her son was not a Christian. She, however, kept up regular family worship with her son's household. By and by her prayers became very personal. She pleaded for the conversion of her son. He did not like this, and expostulated with her She told him that she would agree to refrain from such direct prayers on condition that he would go at once for the Rev. Mr. Ross (a Cumberland Presbyterian minister), and have him come and hold a meeting there in their own house. There was no meetinghouse in the neighborhood. The ground was then covered with snow, but with some reluctance and misgivings the condition was accepted. Ross came and held the meeting. A gracious revival was the result. Many persons were converted, and a Cumberland [651] Presbyterian Church was organized with forty members. The first name on its roll was Mrs. McDonald's. That church still exists. Nearly all the members of that branch of the McDonald family, wherever they are now scattered, are Cumberland Presbyterians.

A JEW CONVERTED. Many years ago Mr. D., a thriving Hebrew merchant, lived in a Tennessee town. The services of the Rev. C.A. Davis, M.D., were secured to hold a series of meetings in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. This Jewish citizen attended the meetings and became an ardent admirer of the preacher. One day Dr. Davis discussed the prophecies which point to Christ as the Messiah of the Old Testament.D. was present, and gave close attention. As the proofs were brought nearer and nearer to a demonstration, the sweat rolled from D.'s face. At last the preacher closed up the last link in the chain of his argument. The Jew saw it all like a flash of lightning. In an instant, right in the midst of the sermon, he cried out at the top of his voice, "O thou son of David, have mercy upon me." He became an earnest Christian, and his whole family followed him into the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, where he maintained a consistent membership until the day of his death.

L.C. RANSOM'S DISCIPLINE. While L.C. Ransom was pastor at Memphis, Tennessee, a lady who had been an active and faithful member in his congregation attended the theater. Afterward she began to have some anxiety about what her pastor would say on the subject. Finally she made up her mind to put on a bold face. She would resent any attempts to lecture her as an interference with her private rights, and assert her ability to judge for herself what was proper conduct for a church member. Her first meeting with the pastor was in his study alone. He met her kindly, took her cordially by the hand, and, bursting into tears, turned away and hid his face from her sight. She then and there resolved never again to attend the theater.

PRESENTIMENT OF DEATH. In 1871 the Rev. A.J. McGown was attending the meeting of Trinity Presbytery. He preached Friday. Saturday he was again [652] appointed to preach. When he rose in the pulpit those who had long known him say that they never before saw on his face such an expression of solemnity. He commenced by saying: "Brethren, I feel impressed that this is to be my last sermon, and I want to take this text, `Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.'" The sermon was one of great power. He returned after services to the house of Mr. Murchison, where he took his bed, from which he rose no more.

1. See Minutes of General Assembly, 1880, p. 38; 1882, pp. 30, 96; 1883, pp. 30, 31.

2. See page 99 of this history.

3. Report in The Cumberland Presbyterian, July 24, 1884.

4. Report of the Board of Missions to the General Assembly of 1879.

5. This address was delivered at the Cumberland Presbyterian State Sunday School Encampment, at Pertle Springs, Missouri, August, 1877.

6. Memoranda furnished by Hogan.

7. Minutes, 1873, p.63.

8. Minutes, 1871, pp. 28, 29.

9. Ibid. p. 47.

10. Minutes of the Assembly 1887, p. 77.

11. Report to Assembly, 1880, Minutes, p. 80.

12. Ibid., 1887, p. 77.

13. Assembly's Minutes, 1882, p. 66.

14. Minutes, 1885, p. 81.

15. Report in Assembly's Minutes, 1886, p. 89.

16. Minutes, 1885, p. 80.

17. Assembly's Minutes, 1885, p. 80.

18. Minutes, 1887, p. 79.

19. Minutes of Assembly 1887, p.86.

20. Address of the Rev. C.H. Bell, D.D., before the Missouri Cumberland Presbyterian Sunday School Assembly, at Pertle Springs, August, 1887.

21. Minutes of the Board, July 26, 1828.

22. Not being able to secure the history of my own administration from any other pen, I submitted my own account of it to the present chancellor, who was my colleague in toil and trials, and I have made all changes suggested by him.--B.W.M.

23. Quoted from the Religious Pantagraph by Dr. A.B. Miller in his article on Waynesburg College in the Theological Medium, Vol. XIV. pp. 63-118, January, 1878. Dr. Miller gives a very full and satisfactory history of the institution over which he has so long and so ably presided, and many of the facts in this sketch are gleaned from his article.

24. Dr. A.B. Miller, in Theological Medium.

25. See his "Review of Dr. Miller's Sketch," in Theological Medium, Vol. XIV, p. 345, July, 1878.

26. Weethee's Article in Theological Medium.

27. Quoted from the Religious Pantagraph by Dr. Miller in the Theological Medium, January, 1878.

28. Weethee's Review of Dr. Miller's Sketch, Theological Medium, July, 1878.

29. Dr. Miller, Ibid., January, 1878.

30. Dr. Miller.

31. This sketch of Trinity University is the work of a committee appointed by a voluntary meeting of ministers and members of the church in Texas, who were in attendance at the General Assembly, at Waco, in May, 1888. The committee consisted of J.A. Ward, D.D., H.F. Bone, D.D., E.B. Crisman, D.D., Rev. J.H. Wofford, and Rev. D.S. Crawford. It was prepared in June, 1888.

32. Since this sketch was written, Dr. Ward has passed from his earthly toil to his reward. In the summer of 1887 he sought relief from severe illness, caused by overwork, in a voyage to Europe. After his arrival in England he grew worse and sailed for home, but died on shipboard in mid-ocean. July 20th, 1887. His death brought sorrow to the hearts of his pupils and his brethren throughout the church, and at Nashville was mourned as a public calamity. The school he founded continues its work with undiminished success.

33. This sketch of the publishing work of the church was prepared by J.M. Gaut, Esq., President of the Board of Publication.

34. It was an offense punishable by death to be found with leaven in the house. Leavened or fermented wine would have incurred that penalty.--Exodus 12:19.

35. Proverbs 23:31,32.

36. I Timothy 3:3; Titus 1:7,8.

37. Sketch furnished by stated clerk, the Rev. W.W.M. Barber.

38. This and the following incident are furnished by the Rev. J.G. Boydstun, of Mississippi.